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Chapter 12 EDITH.

  • Two days after the departure of the messengers from the castle the look-ou_ave notice that he perceived a large body of horsemen and footmen coming dow_he valley, and half an hour later the banner of Gurth could be made out. Th_arrison at once set to work to replace the planking of the bridge, and thi_as accomplished by the time that the Saxon earl, accompanied by severa_hanes, and followed by a strong body of troops, reached the platform at th_ther end. As he did so Beorn and Wulf crossed the bridge to meet him.
  • "You have done well indeed, thanes!" Gurth exclaimed. "You have made _onquest to be proud of; for as we rode along this place seemed to us well- nigh impregnable. But your messengers have told me how you captured it, an_ow stoutly you have since defended it. It was a daring thought, indeed, t_ttempt the assault of such a place with a handful of men. You have rendered _plendid service to the king; for with the capture of this fortress, and o_lewellyn himself and his children, there is no fear that there will b_rouble in this part of Wales for years to come. We, too, are speciall_ndebted to you, for had we been forced to besiege this place it could onl_ave been taken with a vast loss of life, and it might well have resisted al_ur efforts. That seventy men should have taken it, even if weakly defended, is wonderful indeed."
  • "It is to Wulf, my lord, that the credit is chiefly due," Beorn said. "It wa_e who proposed and planned the attack; and though I have done my best t_upport him, I have but acted as his second in command. He is quicker-witte_han I am, and far more fitted to lead."
  • Wulf was about to speak, when Gurth stopped him with a gesture of the hand.
  • "At any rate, Beorn," he said, "you possess qualities that are by no mean_ommon. That you are a brave soldier I know well, but so I trust are all m_hanes; still, it is not every one who has the wit to perceive that anothe_as sharper wits than himself, still fewer who would have the generosity t_tand aside and to give the major share in an exploit like this to another.
  • What you may lose in credit by your avowal you will at least gain in th_steem of us all. Now, commandant," he said to Wulf with a smile, "show us th_ay into this capture of yours."
  • Before entering the castle itself Gurth made a detour of the walls, and upo_eeing them was still more surprised than before at the manner in which th_apture had been effected.
  • "You see, thanes," he said, "the matter hinged on the possession of thes_ates through the cross walls. That the rear walls should have been taken b_urprise was a daring action, but it would have availed nothing had th_arrison had time to close even the second of these gates; for though, as i_eems, no more numerous than our men, they could have easily held it unti_einforced from the village below, and would then have turned the tables o_heir assailants. The capture was due to the quickness and boldness with whic_ulf and Beorn, with the few men who had obtained a footing on the wall whe_he alarm was given, rushed forward and held the inner gateway until the res_ame up."
  • Gurth paused for a time on the wall above the point where the secret passag_ame out on the face of the rock, and having asked many questions as to how i_as that they were so well prepared for Llewellyn and his followers when the_ade the attack, he commended Wulf very strongly for his conduct in thi_atter.
  • "Others might have taken the castle as you did, young thane," he said, "bu_ssuredly most would have lost it again, for having set guards on the wall_hey would have given themselves up to feasting and sleep, without a though_hat there might possibly exist a secret passage through this rock, whic_ooks as if nothing short of a winged army could scale it. What say you, thanes?"
  • The Saxons cordially agreed with the earl. They were stout fighters, bu_etter in the field than in council, and it was in no small degree to th_anish blood in their veins that the sons of Godwin owed the vigour an_ntellect that had raised the family to so lofty a position among thei_ountrymen. On concluding his inspection of the walls Gurth entered th_astle, and after first examining the entrance to the secret passage, sat dow_ith the thanes to a banquet, the preparation of which had been begun as soo_s their coming was perceived. After that Gurth paid a visit to Llewellyn.
  • "Your fate is not in my hands, prince," he said to him, "but in that of m_rother Harold. As, however, you have used your influence to persuade you_eople to submit, I shall do my best to induce him to take a favourable vie_f your case."
  • The next day the main body of Gurth's force arrived, and encamped in th_alley. Llewellyn's chiefs all came in and made their submission, but th_eople for the most part took to the hills. As, day after day, news came o_he terrible retaliation dealt out by the troops of Harold and Tostig the_ost heart altogether, and sent in messengers craving to be allowed to come i_nd lay down their arms. Gurth at once accepted their submission, and hundred_eturned to their homes. In other parts of Wales the feeling that resistanc_as vain rapidly extended. Their most fertile valleys had all been turned int_eserts, and even on their own hills and among their own forests, where the_ad hitherto deemed themselves safe from attack, they were pursued and hunte_own by the now lightly-armed Saxons. From all parts, therefore, offers t_ubmit were sent in, and as a proof of their submission and regret for pas_ehaviour, they seized Griffith their king, killed him, and sent his head t_arold, who thereupon granted them terms, and ordered his forces to withdra_eyond the border.
  • The campaign had lasted less than three months, but so terrible had been th_low dealt to the Welsh that a hundred years passed before they again venture_o renew their incursions into England. Llewellyn was pardoned, but grea_reaches were made in the walls of the fortress facing the hill, and these h_as forbidden ever to repair. His children were taken to England, to b_rought up there, and to serve as hostages for his future good behaviour.
  • Harold, when he learnt the particulars of the capture and defence of Porthwyn, expressed his approval in the warmest terms.
  • "You have performed the greatest and most important feat of the war, Wulf," h_aid. "Yes, it is right that you should give every credit Beorn for his shar_n the matter; but I know you both well, and am assured that Beorn would neve_ave conceived and carried out the attack, and that had he done s_uccessfully, he and his men would all have been slain by Llewellyn tha_ight. Beorn is a good youth; he is brave and kind-hearted; he is no fool, an_ill make and excellent thane; will become a favourite at court, and be alway_oyal and staunch. But I shall look to see you more than this. You have a hea_uick to plan, readiness and decision in danger, and, as you have shown, _enius for war. Study the writings of the Romans, the greatest masters of wa_he world has ever seen, make yourself acquainted with the methods of Caesa_nd other great commanders, and do not neglect to ponder on their laws an_ustoms.
  • "When matters are settled here, travel to the various courts of Europe an_cquaint yourself with the ways of peoples who are far more advanced than w_n civilization, and you may come to stand some day among the most truste_ouncillors of the king, and as one of the best leaders of his troops. I se_hat the success you have attained while as yet so young has not puffed you u_n any way. Always remember, Wulf, that though success may be envied, thos_ho are successful may yet be liked if only they themselves do not see_onscious of success. I should say you had best not make a long stay at court, but betake you, shortly, to your estate. It is a good school, and one who ca_ule his own people wisely has a sound preparation for posts of large_esponsibility. You will always find in the prior of Bramber a wise adviser, who will direct your studies, and will aid you where your Latinity fall_hort.
  • "It will be time enough in another five years for you to go abroad; but, o_ourse, I do not wish you to remain all that time away from court. It is neve_ood to be forgotten; therefore, come up two or three times a year. I trus_hat there will be no fresh wars or troubles to hinder your studies o_nterfere with your life; but remember that there is always danger fro_ormandy, therefore always keep on foot your force of housecarls; and if, as _hink, your estates can afford it, add to their number, so that if troubl_oes come you will be able to again play a prominent part in it."
  • Wulf's contingent marched with the rest of the troops from the east as far a_eading, and there struck off by the nearest road to Steyning. He and Beor_ccompanied Harold to London, and after staying there for a short time, an_aking part in the fetes with which the conquest of the Welsh was celebrated, Wulf returned to Steyning and took up the life he had previously led there.
  • Before starting he asked Harold's advice as to whether he should fortif_teyning after the manner of the Norman castles.
  • "By no means, Wulf. Such castles are useful only against quarrelsom_eighbours. Wars are decided by great battles, and if these are lost a castl_oes but bring ruin upon its possessor, for it must sooner or later be taken.
  • The man who, when a cause is lost, returns quietly to his home and goes abou_is usual work may escape unnoticed, while one who shuts himself up in _astle is certain to suffer at last from the vengeance of the conquerors.
  • Resistance maintained in forests and swamps, as was done by the Bretons an_elsh, may weary out a foe, but a conqueror can wish for nothing better tha_hat the defeated may assemble themselves in towns and castles, where he ca_lowly, perhaps, but surely destroy them piecemeal."
  • The time passed quickly and pleasantly at Steyning. Wulf studied hard fo_hree or four hours a day, looked after his tenants, hunted and hawked, doubled the number of his company of housecarls, and often rode over to th_riory of an evening. He now took his place naturally among the thanes in tha_art of the country, the reputation he had gained in the two wars giving him _tanding among them, to which, from his youth, he would not otherwise hav_een entitled. In accordance with Harold's advice he went three times durin_he year up to court, where he generally met Beorn, who spent the greater par_f his time there.
  • "How you can like all this formality and ceremony is more than I can imagine, Beorn."
  • "I don't care either for the formality or the ceremony, but I like th_musement and the gaiety, and should ask with much more reason how can yo_ike to spend your time studying parchments and reading the doings of thos_ld Romans, when you might be enjoying yourself here. The matter is altogethe_eyond me."
  • "I like it for itself, and I like it because it may some day be of grea_ervice to me."
  • "You see you are ambitious, Wulf, and I am not. I don't want to be a grea_ommander or a state-councillor, and if I did want it ever so much I know _hould never be one or the other. I am content to be a thane, as my father wa_efore me, and seek no greater change than that of a stay for a month a_ourt. That brightens one up more than anything; and one cannot be all one'_ife hunting in the woods and seeing after the tenants. By the way, I had _uarrel the other day with your old Norman enemy, Fitz-Urse. Your name wa_entioned, and he chose to sneer offensively. I told him that you had don_ore already than he would ever do if he lived to be an old man. We came t_igh words, and next day met in the forest and there settled it. He ran m_hrough the arm, and I slashed his cheek. As quarrelling is strictly forbidde_e made some excuse and went over to France, while I went down home till m_rm was well again. I fancy we hurt each other about equally, but the scar o_y arm won't show, while I fancy, from what the leech who dressed his woun_old me, the sear is likely to spoil his beauty for life."
  • "I am sorry you quarrelled with him about me, Beorn. It would have been bette_o have said nothing, though I thank you for your championship."
  • "Nonsense, Wulf. I know very well you would not hear anyone speak ill of m_ithout taking up the cudgels for me."
  • Wulf could not deny this. "Certainly not, Beorn; still it is a pity to make a_nemy, and Fitz-Urse has shown in my case that he is not one who forgives."
  • The Welsh campaign had terminated at the end of August, and it was a mont_ater that Wulf had returned to Steyning. Just a year afterwards he received _essage from Harold to come up to London, and to order his housecarls to hol_hemselves in readiness to start immediately on receiving an order from him.
  • Somewhat surprised, for no news had reached him of any trouble that could cal_or the employment of an armed force, Wulf rode for London alone, biddin_sgod follow with the housecarls as soon as he heard from him. When he reache_he palace he heard news that explained the cause of his summons. Northumbri_ad risen in rebellion against Earl Tostig. He was accused of tyranny an_ppression, and had been continually away from his earldom, leaving it to b_overned in his absence by a thane.
  • The country north of the Humber had for a long period of years bee_ndependent, appointing their own rulers, who owed no allegiance whatever t_he kings of the West Saxons. Although now incorporated in the kingdom o_ngland the Northumbrians regretted their lost independence, and this all th_ore, that the population were for the most part Danish, and viewed with a_ntense feeling of jealousy the preponderance gained by the West Saxons.
  • Tostig at the time the revolt declared itself was hunting with the king—wh_ad a great affection for him—in the forests of Wiltshire, and had not arrive_n town when Wulf reached the capital. It was not until the afternoon tha_ulf had an interview with Harold. The earl had just come from a council an_as alone.
  • "Thank you for coming up so speedily," he said as he shook the young thane b_he hand. "You have heard the news, I suppose?"
  • "I have heard that Northumberland has risen in rebellion."
  • "Yes, that was the news that arrived four days since."
  • "Is it serious?"
  • "Yes, very serious; the rebellion grows each day. It is headed by several o_he greatest landowners in the north, both Danish and Saxon, and the wors_art of the news is that the trouble has, as I hear, been stirred up by Edwi_f Mercia and his brother. It is the old rivalry between the House of Leofri_nd ours. They are jealous of our influence with the king, and would gladl_end England into two kingdoms again. We hear to-day that the Northumbria_obles have summoned a Gemot to meet, which amounts in fact to a rebellion, not only against Tostig but against the king."
  • "If Mercia joins Northumbria it would be a more serious business than that i_ales."
  • "I think not that it will be so," Harold said. "Edwin has been alway_onspiring. He stirred up the Welsh, he has encouraged the Norwegians, he ha_ntrigued in Northumbria. He and his brother have ever been a source o_rouble, and yet he has never openly rebelled; he sets others to do th_ighting for him, prepared if they are successful to reap the fruits of thei_ictory. There is, of course, still hope that moderate councils may prevail, but I fear that the Northumbrians will consider that they have gone too far t_urn back. At present, at any rate, no steps will be taken. As long as n_rmed forces are set in motion there are hopes that matters may be arranged, but the approach of an army would set all Northumbria on fire. The Gemot i_ummoned to meet this day week—that is on the third of October—and we shal_ait to hear what steps they take. Messengers have already been sent to _arge number of thanes to be prepared for service. I would that all kept _orce of housecarls as you do. I am going down to-night to my house nea_ampton. Do you come down with me, Wulf. Edith will be glad to see you."
  • Wulf had in the days of his pageship several times accompanied Harold t_ampton, and knew well the lady, who was known to the Saxons as Edith of th_wan-neck. She was by birth far inferior in position to Harold. The relatio_etween them was similar to that known throughout the middle ages as left-han_arriages. These were marriages contracted between men of high rank and ladie_f inferior position, and while they lasted were regarded as being lawful; bu_hey could be, and frequently were, broken off, when for politic or othe_easons the prince or noble had to seek another alliance. The lady was o_reat beauty and talent, and exercised a large influence over Harold. This wa_lways employed for good, and she was much beloved by the Saxons.
  • The alliance had been formed while Harold was quite a young man, and he an_dith were fondly attached to each other. His rise, however, to the positio_f the foremost man in England, and the prospect of his accession to th_hrone, rendered it probable that ere long he would be obliged to marry on_ho would strengthen his position, and would from her high birth be fitted t_hare the crown with him. William of Normandy was perfectly well aware of th_elation in which Edith stood to Harold, and had not regarded her as an_bstacle to the earl's marriage with his daughter; and even Harold himself ha_ot attempted to give it as a reason for declining the offer of the hand o_he Norman princess.
  • As they rode down to Hampton the earl said, "I dare say you are somewha_urprised at my leaving the court at this crisis, Wulf, but in truth I want t_eep my hands free. Tostig, you know, is rash and impetuous. I love him well, but am not blind to his faults; and I fear that the people of Northumbria hav_ome just cause for complaint against him. He is constantly away from hi_arldom. He was absent for months when he went to Rome, and he spends a grea_art of his time either at the court here or with the king at his hunting- lodges. The Northumbrians are a proud people, and it is small wonder that the_bject to be governed by an absent earl. Tostig is furious at what he term_he insolence of the Northumbrians, and I would fain avoid all questions o_ispute with him. It is not improbable that the king and his councillors ma_e called upon to hear the complaints of the Northumbrians, and to decid_etween them and Tostig. This will be bitter enough for my brother. He ma_eturn at any moment, and I greatly wish to avoid all argument with him befor_he matter is discussed in council."
  • The house at Hampton was a large one, and here Edith lived in considerabl_tate. Grooms ran up and took the horses as Harold and Wulf dismounted. Si_etainers in jerkins embroidered with the earl's cognizance appeared at th_oors. As they entered the house, Edith came out from an inner room and fondl_mbraced Harold.
  • "Who is this you have with you, Harold?"
  • "What, have you forgotten Wulf of Steyning, who has, as I told you, turned ou_ great fighter, and was the captor of the castle of Porthwyn, and of it_wner, Llewellyn ap Rhys?"
  • "I did not know you again, Wulf," Edith said holding out her hand to him, "bu_ow that I hear who you are I recognize you. Why, it is four years since I sa_ou, and you were then a mischievous little page. Harold has often spoken t_e about you, and your adventures in Normandy and Wales. I did not expect t_ee you, Harold," she went on turning to the earl, "after what you told me i_he letter you sent me yesterday, about the troubles in the north. I feare_hat you would be kept at court."
  • "Tostig and the king are still away," he said, "and he will return so furiou_t this revolt against his authority, that, thinking as I do that he is in n_mall degree at fault—for I have frequently remonstrated with him at spendin_o large a portion of his time away from his earldom,—I thought it best to ge_way."
  • "It is strange how Tostig differs from the rest of you," Edith said. "You an_eofwyn, and Gurth are all gentle and courteous, while Tostig is fierce an_mpetuous."
  • "Tostig has his faults," Harold said; "but we love each other dearly, and fro_he time we were boys together we have never had a dispute. It will be har_ndeed upon me if I am called upon to side against him. We have learnt, Edith, that Edwin and Morcar have been intriguing with the Northumbrians. Thes_ercian earls are ever bringing troubles upon the country, and I fear the_ill give even greater trouble in the future. If they stir up disturbances, a_hey have done, against the king, who is king by the will of the people, an_lso by right of birth, what will it be when—" and he stopped.
  • "When you shall mount the throne, my Harold," Edith said proudly. "Oh, tha_his feud between Leofric's house and Godwin's were at an end. It bodes il_or England."
  • "It is natural," Harold said gently. "It is as gall and wormwood to the earl_f Mercia to see the ascendancy of the West Saxons, and still more would it b_o were I, Godwin's son, without a drop of royal blood in my veins, to come t_e their king."
  • "The feud must be closed," Edith said firmly, though Wulf noticed that he_ace paled. "I have told you so before, Harold, and there is but one way."
  • "It shall never be closed in that way, Edith; rather would I lie in my grave."
  • "You have not to think of yourself, Harold, still less of me. It is of Englan_ou have to think—this England that will assuredly choose you as its king, an_ho will have a right to expect that you will make any or every sacrifice fo_ts sake"
  • "Any but that," Harold said.
  • She smiled faintly and shook her head. Wulf did not understand th_onversation, but there was a look of earnest resolve in her face that deepl_mpressed him. He had moved a short distance away, and now turned and looke_ut of the window, while they exchanged a few more words, having been, as h_aw, altogether oblivious of his presence in the earnestness with which the_oth spoke.
  • For a week Harold remained at Hampton. Wulf saw that he was much troubled i_is mind, and concluded that the messengers who came and went every day wer_he bearers of bad tidings. It was seldom that he was away from the side o_dith. When they were together she was always bright, but once or twice whe_ulf found her alone her features bore an expression of deep sadness.
  • "We must ride for London, Wulf," Harold said one morning after reading _etter brought by a royal messenger. "The king has laid his orders on me t_roceed at once to town, and indeed the news is well-nigh as bad as can be.
  • The Gemot has voted the deposition of Tostig, has even had the insolence t_eclare him an outlaw, and has elected Morcar in his place. It has also issue_ecrees declaring all partisans of Tostig outlaws, and confiscating thei_states. Two of Tostig's Danish housecarls were slain on the first day o_heir meeting. Two hundred of Tostig's personal followers have since bee_assacred; his treasury has been broken open, and all its contents carrie_ff. The election of Morcar shows but too plainly the designs of the earls o_ercia. They wish to divide England into two portions, and to reign suprem_orth of the Wellan. This will give them full half of England, and woul_ssuredly, even did we not oppose them now, lead to a terrible war. The mor_errible as William of Normandy will be watching from across the channel, ready to take instant advantage of our dissensions. God avert a war like this.
  • Every sacrifice must be made rather than that the men of the north and sout_f England should fly at each other's throats."
  • The earl scarcely spoke a word during the ride to London, but rode absorbed i_is thoughts with a sad and anxious countenance.
  • Day after day the news became more serious. Morcar accepted the earldom o_orthumbria, hurried to York, and placing himself at the head of th_orthumbrian forces, marched south, being joined on the way by the men o_incoln, Nottingham, and Derby, in all of which shires the Danish element wa_ery strong. At Northampton, which had formed part of the government o_ostig, Morcar was joined by his brother Edwin at the head of the forces o_ercia, together with a large body of Welsh. They found the people o_orthampton less favourable to their cause than they had expected, and i_evenge harried the whole country, killing and burning, and carrying off th_attle as booty and the men as slaves.
  • Harold bore the brunt of the trouble alone, for, regardless of the fact tha_alf the kingdom was in a flame, King Edward and Tostig continued thei_unting expeditions in Wiltshire, in spite of the urgent messages sent b_arold entreating them to return. In the meantime, still hoping that peac_ight in some way be preserved, Harold sent messages to all the thanes o_mportance in Wessex, ordering them to prepare to march to London with th_hole of their retainers and levies, as soon as they received orders to get i_otion. But while he still tarried in Wiltshire the king acceded to Harold'_equest that he might be empowered to go to Northampton to treat in Edward'_ame with the rebels.
  • As soon as he received this permission Harold hastened to Northampton, accompanied by only half a dozen of his thanes, among whom was Wulf. He wa_eceived with respect by the rebels, but when their leaders assembled, and i_he king's name he called upon them to lay down their arms, to cease fro_avaging, and to lay any complaints they might have to make against Tosti_efore the king or the National Gemot, he met with a flat refusal. They woul_ot listen to any proposition that involved the possibility of the return o_ostig, and boldly said that if the king wished to retain Northumbria as par_f his realm he must confirm the sentence of their Gemot upon Tostig, and mus_ecognize their election of Morcar to the earldom.
  • In all this Harold perceived clearly enough that, although it was th_orthumbrian leaders who were speaking, they were acting entirely under th_nfluence of Edwin and Morcar. All that he could obtain was that some of th_orthern thanes should accompany him to lay their demands before the kin_imself. Edward, upon hearing, by a swift messenger sent by Harold, of th_ailure of his attempt to induce the Northumbrians to lay down their arms, reluctantly abandoned the pleasures of the chase, and proceeded to Bretford, near Salisbury, where there was a royal house, and summoned a Witenagemot. As, however, the occasion was urgent, it was attended only by the king's chie_ouncillors, and by the thanes of that part of Wessex.
  • Between Tostig and Harold the quarrel that the latter had feared had alread_roken out. Harold was anxious above all things for peace, and although th_low to his own interests and to those of his family, by the transfer o_orthumbria from his brother to one of the Mercian earls, was a most seriou_ne, he preferred that even this should take place to embarking in a war tha_ould involve the whole of England. Tostig was so furious at finding tha_arold was not willing to push matters to the last extremity in his favour, that he accused him of being the secret instigator of the Northumbrian revolt.
  • The absurdity of such an accusation was evident. It was as much to Harold'_nterest as to that of Tostig that the great northern earldom should remain i_he hands of his family; but an angry man does not reason, and Tostig's fur_as roused to the highest point by the outspoken utterances of many of th_embers of the Witenagemot. These boldly accused him of cruelty and avarice, and declared that many of his acts of severity were caused by hi_etermination, under a show of justice, to possess himself of the wealth o_hose he condemned. Tostig then rose and declared before the assembly that th_hole rising was the work of Harold.
  • The latter simply denied the charge on oath, and his word was accepted a_ufficient. The Witan then turned to the question as to how the revolt was t_e dealt with. The king was vehemently in favour of putting it down by forc_f arms. Tostig was of all the Saxons his favourite friend, and he considere_he insult offered to him as dealt against himself. So determined was he, tha_e sent out orders for the whole of the forces of Wessex to march and join th_oyal standard. In vain Harold and Edward's wisest councillors endeavoured t_issuade him from a step that would deluge the country in blood, and migh_ead to terrible disaster. In vain they pointed out that while all the thane_ould willingly put their forces at his disposal to resist a foreign foe, o_ven to repel an invasion from the north, they would not risk life and fortun_n an endeavour to force a governor upon a people who hated him, and, as mos_hought, with good reason.
  • The king was immovable; but Harold and his councillors took steps quietly t_nform the thanes that the Witan was opposed to the order, and that for th_resent no harm would be done by disregarding the royal mandate. The king, i_is anger and mortification at finding himself unable to march against th_ebels with an overwhelming force, fell ill, and the control of affairs passe_nto Harold's hands; and the king, whose fits of passion, though extreme whil_hey lasted, were but short-lived gave him full power to deal with the matte_s he thought best.
  • Harold had done all that he could for Tostig when he went to Northampton, bu_ad failed. There was no alternative now between a great war, followe_robably by a complete split of the kingdom, or acquiescence in the demands o_he men of the North. He did not hesitate, but in the name of the kin_onfirmed the decisions arrived at by the Gemot of York—recognized Morcar a_arl of Northumbria, and granted a complete amnesty for all offences committe_uring the rising, on condition only that a general Witenagemot should be hel_t Oxford. At this meeting Northern and Southern England were again solemnl_econciled, as they had been forty-seven years before at an assembly held a_he same place.