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Chapter 9

  • With regard to military matters, Napoleon immediately on his entry into Mosco_ave General Sabastiani strict orders to observe the movements of the Russia_rmy, sent army corps out along the different roads, and charged Murat to fin_utuzov. Then he gave careful directions about the fortification of th_remlin, and drew up a brilliant plan for a future campaign over the whole ma_f Russia.
  • With regard to diplomatic questions, Napoleon summoned Captain Yakovlev, wh_ad been robbed and was in rags and did not know how to get out of Moscow,
  • minutely explained to him his whole policy and his magnanimity, and havin_ritten a letter to the Emperor Alexander in which he considered it his dut_o inform his Friend and Brother that Rostopchin had managed affairs badly i_oscow, he dispatched Yakovlev to Petersburg.
  • Having similarly explained his views and his magnanimity to Tutolmin, h_ispatched that old man also to Petersburg to negotiate.
  • With regard to legal matters, immediately after the fires he gave orders t_ind and execute the incendiaries. And the scoundrel Rostopchin was punishe_y an order to burn down his houses.
  • With regard to administrative matters, Moscow was granted a constitution. _unicipality was established and the following announcement issued:
  • INHABITANTS OF MOSCOW!
  • Your misfortunes are cruel, but His Majesty the Emperor and King desires t_rrest their course. Terrible examples have taught you how he punishe_isobedience and crime. Strict measures have been taken to put an end t_isorder and to re-establish public security. A paternal administration,
  • chosen from among yourselves, will form your municipality or city government.
  • It will take care of you, of your needs, and of your welfare. Its members wil_e distinguished by a red ribbon worn across the shoulder, and the mayor o_he city will wear a white belt as well. But when not on duty they will onl_ear a red ribbon round the left arm.
  • The city police is established on its former footing, and better order alread_revails in consequence of its activity. The government has appointed tw_ommissaries general, or chiefs of police, and twenty commissaries or captain_f wards have been appointed to the different wards of the city. You wil_ecognize them by the white ribbon they will wear on the left arm. Severa_hurches of different denominations are open, and divine service is performe_n them unhindered. Your fellow citizens are returning every day to thei_omes. and orders have been given that they should find in them the help an_rotection due to their misfortunes. These are the measures the government ha_dopted to re-establish order and relieve your condition. But to achieve thi_im it is necessary that you should add your efforts and should, if possible,
  • forget the misfortunes you have suffered, should entertain the hope of a les_ruel fate, should be certain that inevitable and ignominious death await_hose who make any attempt on your persons or on what remains of you_roperty, and finally that you should not doubt that these will b_afeguarded, since such is the will of the greatest and most just of monarchs.
  • Soldiers and citizens, of whatever nation you may be, re-establish publi_onfidence, the source of the welfare of a state, live like brothers, rende_utual aid and protection one to another, unite to defeat the intentions o_he evil-minded, obey the military and civil authorities, and your tears wil_oon cease to flow!
  • With regard to supplies for the army, Napoleon decreed that all the troops i_urn should enter Moscow a la maraude[[109]](footnotes.xml#footnote_109) t_btain provisions for themselves, so that the army might have its futur_rovided for. With regard to religion, Napoleon ordered the priests to b_rought back and services to be again performed in the churches. With regar_o commerce and to provisioning the army, the following was placarde_verywhere: PROCLAMATION! You, peaceful inhabitants of Moscow, artisans an_orkmen whom misfortune has driven from the city, and you scattered tillers o_he soil, still kept out in the fields by groundless fear, listen!
  • Tranquillity is returning to this capital and order is being restored in it.
  • Your fellow countrymen are emerging boldly from their hiding places on findin_hat they are respected. Any violence to them or to their property is promptl_unished. His Majesty the Emperor and King protects them, and considers no on_mong you his enemy except those who disobey his orders. He desires to en_our misfortunes and restore you to your homes and families. Respond,
  • therefore, to his benevolent intentions and come to us without fear.
  • Inhabitants, return with confidence to your abodes! You will soon find mean_f satisfying your needs. Craftsmen and industrious artisans, return to you_ork, your houses, your shops, where the protection of guards awaits you! Yo_hall receive proper pay for your work. And lastly you too, peasants, com_rom the forests where you are hiding in terror, return to your huts withou_ear, in full assurance that you will find protection! Markets are establishe_n the city where peasants can bring their surplus supplies and the product_f the soil. The government has taken the following steps to ensure freedom o_ale for them: (1) From today, peasants, husbandmen, and those living in th_eighborhood of Moscow may without any danger bring their supplies of al_inds to two appointed markets, of which one is on the Mokhovaya Street an_he other at the Provision Market. (2) Such supplies will be bought from the_t such prices as seller and buyer may agree on, and if a seller is unable t_btain a fair price he will be free to take his goods back to his village an_o one may hinder him under any pretense. (3) Sunday and Wednesday of eac_eek are appointed as the chief market days and to that end a sufficien_umber of troops will be stationed along the highroads on Tuesdays an_aturdays at such distances from the town as to protect the carts. (4) Simila_easures will be taken that peasants with their carts and horses may meet wit_o hindrance on their return journey. (5) Steps will immediately be taken t_e-establish ordinary trading. Inhabitants of the city and villages, and you,
  • workingmen and artisans, to whatever nation you belong, you are called on t_arry out the paternal intentions of His Majesty the Emperor and King and t_o-operate with him for the public welfare! Lay your respect and confidence a_is feet and do not delay to unite with us! With the object of raising th_pirits of the troops and of the people, reviews were constantly held an_ewards distributed. The Emperor rode through the streets to comfort th_nhabitants, and, despite his preoccupation with state affairs, himsel_isited the theaters that were established by his order. In regard t_hilanthropy, the greatest virtue of crowned heads, Napoleon also did all i_is power. He caused the words Maison de ma Mere to be inscribed on th_haritable institutions, thereby combining tender filial affection with th_ajestic benevolence of a monarch. He visited the Foundling Hospital and,
  • allowing the orphans saved by him to kiss his white hands, graciousl_onversed with Tutolmin. Then, as Thiers eloquently recounts, he ordered hi_oldiers to be paid in forged Russian money which he had prepared: "Raisin_he use of these means by an act worthy of himself and of the French army, h_et relief be distributed to those who had been burned out. But as food wa_oo precious to be given to foreigners, who were for the most part enemies,
  • Napoleon preferred to supply them with money with which to purchase food fro_utside, and had paper rubles distributed to them." With reference to arm_iscipline, orders were continually being issued to inflict severe punishmen_or the nonperformance of military duties and to suppress robbery.