With regard to military matters, Napoleon immediately on his entry into Mosco_ave General Sabastiani strict orders to observe the movements of the Russia_rmy, sent army corps out along the different roads, and charged Murat to fin_utuzov. Then he gave careful directions about the fortification of th_remlin, and drew up a brilliant plan for a future campaign over the whole ma_f Russia.
With regard to diplomatic questions, Napoleon summoned Captain Yakovlev, wh_ad been robbed and was in rags and did not know how to get out of Moscow,
minutely explained to him his whole policy and his magnanimity, and havin_ritten a letter to the Emperor Alexander in which he considered it his dut_o inform his Friend and Brother that Rostopchin had managed affairs badly i_oscow, he dispatched Yakovlev to Petersburg.
Having similarly explained his views and his magnanimity to Tutolmin, h_ispatched that old man also to Petersburg to negotiate.
With regard to legal matters, immediately after the fires he gave orders t_ind and execute the incendiaries. And the scoundrel Rostopchin was punishe_y an order to burn down his houses.
With regard to administrative matters, Moscow was granted a constitution. _unicipality was established and the following announcement issued:
INHABITANTS OF MOSCOW!
Your misfortunes are cruel, but His Majesty the Emperor and King desires t_rrest their course. Terrible examples have taught you how he punishe_isobedience and crime. Strict measures have been taken to put an end t_isorder and to re-establish public security. A paternal administration,
chosen from among yourselves, will form your municipality or city government.
It will take care of you, of your needs, and of your welfare. Its members wil_e distinguished by a red ribbon worn across the shoulder, and the mayor o_he city will wear a white belt as well. But when not on duty they will onl_ear a red ribbon round the left arm.
The city police is established on its former footing, and better order alread_revails in consequence of its activity. The government has appointed tw_ommissaries general, or chiefs of police, and twenty commissaries or captain_f wards have been appointed to the different wards of the city. You wil_ecognize them by the white ribbon they will wear on the left arm. Severa_hurches of different denominations are open, and divine service is performe_n them unhindered. Your fellow citizens are returning every day to thei_omes. and orders have been given that they should find in them the help an_rotection due to their misfortunes. These are the measures the government ha_dopted to re-establish order and relieve your condition. But to achieve thi_im it is necessary that you should add your efforts and should, if possible,
forget the misfortunes you have suffered, should entertain the hope of a les_ruel fate, should be certain that inevitable and ignominious death await_hose who make any attempt on your persons or on what remains of you_roperty, and finally that you should not doubt that these will b_afeguarded, since such is the will of the greatest and most just of monarchs.
Soldiers and citizens, of whatever nation you may be, re-establish publi_onfidence, the source of the welfare of a state, live like brothers, rende_utual aid and protection one to another, unite to defeat the intentions o_he evil-minded, obey the military and civil authorities, and your tears wil_oon cease to flow!
With regard to supplies for the army, Napoleon decreed that all the troops i_urn should enter Moscow a la maraude[](footnotes.xml#footnote_109) t_btain provisions for themselves, so that the army might have its futur_rovided for. With regard to religion, Napoleon ordered the priests to b_rought back and services to be again performed in the churches. With regar_o commerce and to provisioning the army, the following was placarde_verywhere: PROCLAMATION! You, peaceful inhabitants of Moscow, artisans an_orkmen whom misfortune has driven from the city, and you scattered tillers o_he soil, still kept out in the fields by groundless fear, listen!
Tranquillity is returning to this capital and order is being restored in it.
Your fellow countrymen are emerging boldly from their hiding places on findin_hat they are respected. Any violence to them or to their property is promptl_unished. His Majesty the Emperor and King protects them, and considers no on_mong you his enemy except those who disobey his orders. He desires to en_our misfortunes and restore you to your homes and families. Respond,
therefore, to his benevolent intentions and come to us without fear.
Inhabitants, return with confidence to your abodes! You will soon find mean_f satisfying your needs. Craftsmen and industrious artisans, return to you_ork, your houses, your shops, where the protection of guards awaits you! Yo_hall receive proper pay for your work. And lastly you too, peasants, com_rom the forests where you are hiding in terror, return to your huts withou_ear, in full assurance that you will find protection! Markets are establishe_n the city where peasants can bring their surplus supplies and the product_f the soil. The government has taken the following steps to ensure freedom o_ale for them: (1) From today, peasants, husbandmen, and those living in th_eighborhood of Moscow may without any danger bring their supplies of al_inds to two appointed markets, of which one is on the Mokhovaya Street an_he other at the Provision Market. (2) Such supplies will be bought from the_t such prices as seller and buyer may agree on, and if a seller is unable t_btain a fair price he will be free to take his goods back to his village an_o one may hinder him under any pretense. (3) Sunday and Wednesday of eac_eek are appointed as the chief market days and to that end a sufficien_umber of troops will be stationed along the highroads on Tuesdays an_aturdays at such distances from the town as to protect the carts. (4) Simila_easures will be taken that peasants with their carts and horses may meet wit_o hindrance on their return journey. (5) Steps will immediately be taken t_e-establish ordinary trading. Inhabitants of the city and villages, and you,
workingmen and artisans, to whatever nation you belong, you are called on t_arry out the paternal intentions of His Majesty the Emperor and King and t_o-operate with him for the public welfare! Lay your respect and confidence a_is feet and do not delay to unite with us! With the object of raising th_pirits of the troops and of the people, reviews were constantly held an_ewards distributed. The Emperor rode through the streets to comfort th_nhabitants, and, despite his preoccupation with state affairs, himsel_isited the theaters that were established by his order. In regard t_hilanthropy, the greatest virtue of crowned heads, Napoleon also did all i_is power. He caused the words Maison de ma Mere to be inscribed on th_haritable institutions, thereby combining tender filial affection with th_ajestic benevolence of a monarch. He visited the Foundling Hospital and,
allowing the orphans saved by him to kiss his white hands, graciousl_onversed with Tutolmin. Then, as Thiers eloquently recounts, he ordered hi_oldiers to be paid in forged Russian money which he had prepared: "Raisin_he use of these means by an act worthy of himself and of the French army, h_et relief be distributed to those who had been burned out. But as food wa_oo precious to be given to foreigners, who were for the most part enemies,
Napoleon preferred to supply them with money with which to purchase food fro_utside, and had paper rubles distributed to them." With reference to arm_iscipline, orders were continually being issued to inflict severe punishmen_or the nonperformance of military duties and to suppress robbery.