Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
＋ Add to Library
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
- "After that Constantine the eagle turned
- Against the course of heaven, which it had followed
- Behind the ancient who Lavinia took,
- Two hundred years and more the bird of God
- In the extreme of Europe held itself,
- Near to the mountains whence it issued first;
- And under shadow of the sacred plumes
- It governed there the world from hand to hand,
- And, changing thus, upon mine own alighted.
- Caesar I was, and am Justinian,
- Who, by the will of primal Love I feel,
- Took from the laws the useless and redundant;
- And ere unto the work I was attent,
- One nature to exist in Christ, not more,
- Believed, and with such faith was I contented.
- But blessed Agapetus, he who was
- The supreme pastor, to the faith sincere
- Pointed me out the way by words of his.
- Him I believed, and what was his assertion
- I now see clearly, even as thou seest
- Each contradiction to be false and true.
- As soon as with the Church I moved my feet,
- God in his grace it pleased with this high task
- To inspire me, and I gave me wholly to it,
- And to my Belisarius I commended
- The arms, to which was heaven's right hand so joined
- It was a signal that I should repose.
- Now here to the first question terminates
- My answer; but the character thereof
- Constrains me to continue with a sequel,
- In order that thou see with how great reason
- Men move against the standard sacrosanct,
- Both who appropriate and who oppose it.
- Behold how great a power has made it worthy
- Of reverence, beginning from the hour
- When Pallas died to give it sovereignty.
- Thou knowest it made in Alba its abode
- Three hundred years and upward, till at last
- The three to three fought for it yet again.
- Thou knowest what it achieved from Sabine wrong
- Down to Lucretia's sorrow, in seven kings
- O'ercoming round about the neighboring nations;
- Thou knowest what it achieved, borne by the Romans
- Illustrious against Brennus, against Pyrrhus,
- Against the other princes and confederates.
- Torquatus thence and Quinctius, who from locks
- Unkempt was named, Decii and Fabii,
- Received the fame I willingly embalm;
- It struck to earth the pride of the Arabians,
- Who, following Hannibal, had passed across
- The Alpine ridges, Po, from which thou glidest;
- Beneath it triumphed while they yet were young
- Pompey and Scipio, and to the hill
- Beneath which thou wast born it bitter seemed;
- Then, near unto the time when heaven had willed
- To bring the whole world to its mood serene,
- Did Caesar by the will of Rome assume it.
- What it achieved from Var unto the Rhine,
- Isere beheld and Saone, beheld the Seine,
- And every valley whence the Rhone is filled;
- What it achieved when it had left Ravenna,
- And leaped the Rubicon, was such a flight
- That neither tongue nor pen could follow it.
- Round towards Spain it wheeled its legions; then
- Towards Durazzo, and Pharsalia smote
- That to the calid Nile was felt the pain.
- Antandros and the Simois, whence it started,
- It saw again, and there where Hector lies,
- And ill for Ptolemy then roused itself.
- From thence it came like lightning upon Juba;
- Then wheeled itself again into your West,
- Where the Pompeian clarion it heard.
- From what it wrought with the next standard-bearer
- Brutus and Cassius howl in Hell together,
- And Modena and Perugia dolent were;
- Still doth the mournful Cleopatra weep
- Because thereof, who, fleeing from before it,
- Took from the adder sudden and black death.
- With him it ran even to the Red Sea shore;
- With him it placed the world in so great peace,
- That unto Janus was his temple closed.
- But what the standard that has made me speak
- Achieved before, and after should achieve
- Throughout the mortal realm that lies beneath it,
- Becometh in appearance mean and dim,
- If in the hand of the third Caesar seen
- With eye unclouded and affection pure,
- Because the living Justice that inspires me
- Granted it, in the hand of him I speak of,
- The glory of doing vengeance for its wrath.
- Now here attend to what I answer thee;
- Later it ran with Titus to do vengeance
- Upon the vengeance of the ancient sin.
- And when the tooth of Lombardy had bitten
- The Holy Church, then underneath its wings
- Did Charlemagne victorious succor her.
- Now hast thou power to judge of such as those
- Whom I accused above, and of their crimes,
- Which are the cause of all your miseries.
- To the public standard one the yellow lilies
- Opposes, the other claims it for a party,
- So that 'tis hard to see which sins the most.
- Let, let the Ghibellines ply their handicraft
- Beneath some other standard; for this ever
- Ill follows he who it and justice parts.
- And let not this new Charles e'er strike it down,
- He and his Guelfs, but let him fear the talons
- That from a nobler lion stripped the fell.
- Already oftentimes the sons have wept
- The father's crime; and let him not believe
- That God will change His scutcheon for the lilies.
- This little planet doth adorn itself
- With the good spirits that have active been,
- That fame and honour might come after them;
- And whensoever the desires mount thither,
- Thus deviating, must perforce the rays
- Of the true love less vividly mount upward.
- But in commensuration of our wages
- With our desert is portion of our joy,
- Because we see them neither less nor greater.
- Herein doth living Justice sweeten so
- Affection in us, that for evermore
- It cannot warp to any iniquity.
- Voices diverse make up sweet melodies;
- So in this life of ours the seats diverse
- Render sweet harmony among these spheres;
- And in the compass of this present pearl
- Shineth the sheen of Romeo, of whom
- The grand and beauteous work was ill rewarded.
- But the Provencals who against him wrought,
- They have not laughed, and therefore ill goes he
- Who makes his hurt of the good deeds of others.
- Four daughters, and each one of them a queen,
- Had Raymond Berenger, and this for him
- Did Romeo, a poor man and a pilgrim;
- And then malicious words incited him
- To summon to a reckoning this just man,
- Who rendered to him seven and five for ten.
- Then he departed poor and stricken in years,
- And if the world could know the heart he had,
- In begging bit by bit his livelihood,
- Though much it laud him, it would laud him more."