Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
- Whene'er is broken up the game of Zara,
- He who has lost remains behind despondent,
- The throws repeating, and in sadness learns;
- The people with the other all depart;
- One goes in front, and one behind doth pluck him,
- And at his side one brings himself to mind;
- He pauses not, and this and that one hears;
- They crowd no more to whom his hand he stretches,
- And from the throng he thus defends himself.
- Even such was I in that dense multitude,
- Turning to them this way and that my face,
- And, promising, I freed myself therefrom.
- There was the Aretine, who from the arms
- Untamed of Ghin di Tacco had his death,
- And he who fleeing from pursuit was drowned.
- There was imploring with his hands outstretched
- Frederick Novello, and that one of Pisa
- Who made the good Marzucco seem so strong.
- I saw Count Orso; and the soul divided
- By hatred and by envy from its body,
- As it declared, and not for crime committed,
- Pierre de la Brosse I say; and here provide
- While still on earth the Lady of Brabant,
- So that for this she be of no worse flock!
- As soon as I was free from all those shades
- Who only prayed that some one else may pray,
- So as to hasten their becoming holy,
- Began I: "It appears that thou deniest,
- O light of mine, expressly in some text,
- That orison can bend decree of Heaven;
- And ne'ertheless these people pray for this.
- Might then their expectation bootless be?
- Or is to me thy saying not quite clear?"
- And he to me: "My writing is explicit,
- And not fallacious is the hope of these,
- If with sane intellect 'tis well regarded;
- For top of judgment doth not vail itself,
- Because the fire of love fulfils at once
- What he must satisfy who here installs him.
- And there, where I affirmed that proposition,
- Defect was not amended by a prayer,
- Because the prayer from God was separate.
- Verily, in so deep a questioning
- Do not decide, unless she tell it thee,
- Who light 'twixt truth and intellect shall be.
- I know not if thou understand; I speak
- Of Beatrice; her shalt thou see above,
- Smiling and happy, on this mountain's top."
- And I: "Good Leader, let us make more haste,
- For I no longer tire me as before;
- And see, e'en now the hill a shadow casts."
- "We will go forward with this day" he answered,
- "As far as now is possible for us;
- But otherwise the fact is than thou thinkest.
- Ere thou art up there, thou shalt see return
- Him, who now hides himself behind the hill,
- So that thou dost not interrupt his rays.
- But yonder there behold! a soul that stationed
- All, all alone is looking hitherward;
- It will point out to us the quickest way."
- We came up unto it; O Lombard soul,
- How lofty and disdainful thou didst bear thee,
- And grand and slow in moving of thine eyes!
- Nothing whatever did it say to us,
- But let us go our way, eying us only
- After the manner of a couchant lion;
- Still near to it Virgilius drew, entreating
- That it would point us out the best ascent;
- And it replied not unto his demand,
- But of our native land and of our life
- It questioned us; and the sweet Guide began:
- "Mantua,"—and the shade, all in itself recluse,
- Rose tow'rds him from the place where first it was,
- Saying: "O Mantuan, I am Sordello
- Of thine own land!" and one embraced the other.
- Ah! servile Italy, grief's hostelry!
- A ship without a pilot in great tempest!
- No Lady thou of Provinces, but brothel!
- That noble soul was so impatient, only
- At the sweet sound of his own native land,
- To make its citizen glad welcome there;
- And now within thee are not without war
- Thy living ones, and one doth gnaw the other
- Of those whom one wall and one fosse shut in!
- Search, wretched one, all round about the shores
- Thy seaboard, and then look within thy bosom,
- If any part of thee enjoyeth peace!
- What boots it, that for thee Justinian
- The bridle mend, if empty be the saddle?
- Withouten this the shame would be the less.
- Ah! people, thou that oughtest to be devout,
- And to let Caesar sit upon the saddle,
- If well thou hearest what God teacheth thee,
- Behold how fell this wild beast has become,
- Being no longer by the spur corrected,
- Since thou hast laid thy hand upon the bridle.
- O German Albert! who abandonest
- Her that has grown recalcitrant and savage,
- And oughtest to bestride her saddle-bow,
- May a just judgment from the stars down fall
- Upon thy blood, and be it new and open,
- That thy successor may have fear thereof;
- Because thy father and thyself have suffered,
- By greed of those transalpine lands distrained,
- The garden of the empire to be waste.
- Come and behold Montecchi and Cappelletti,
- Monaldi and Fillippeschi, careless man!
- Those sad already, and these doubt-depressed!
- Come, cruel one! come and behold the oppression
- Of thy nobility, and cure their wounds,
- And thou shalt see how safe is Santafiore!
- Come and behold thy Rome, that is lamenting,
- Widowed, alone, and day and night exclaims,
- "My Caesar, why hast thou forsaken me?"
- Come and behold how loving are the people;
- And if for us no pity moveth thee,
- Come and be made ashamed of thy renown!
- And if it lawful be, O Jove Supreme!
- Who upon earth for us wast crucified,
- Are thy just eyes averted otherwhere?
- Or preparation is 't, that, in the abyss
- Of thine own counsel, for some good thou makest
- From our perception utterly cut off?
- For all the towns of Italy are full
- Of tyrants, and becometh a Marcellus
- Each peasant churl who plays the partisan!
- My Florence! well mayst thou contented be
- With this digression, which concerns thee not,
- Thanks to thy people who such forethought take!
- Many at heart have justice, but shoot slowly,
- That unadvised they come not to the bow,
- But on their very lips thy people have it!
- Many refuse to bear the common burden;
- But thy solicitous people answereth
- Without being asked, and crieth: "I submit."
- Now be thou joyful, for thou hast good reason;
- Thou affluent, thou in peace, thou full of wisdom!
- If I speak true, the event conceals it not.
- Athens and Lacedaemon, they who made
- The ancient laws, and were so civilized,
- Made towards living well a little sign
- Compared with thee, who makest such fine-spun
- Provisions, that to middle of November
- Reaches not what thou in October spinnest.
- How oft, within the time of thy remembrance,
- Laws, money, offices, and usages
- Hast thou remodelled, and renewed thy members?
- And if thou mind thee well, and see the light,
- Thou shalt behold thyself like a sick woman,
- Who cannot find repose upon her down,
- But by her tossing wardeth off her pain.