Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
- "Thou Virgin Mother, daughter of thy Son,
- Humble and high beyond all other creature,
- The limit fixed of the eternal counsel,
- Thou art the one who such nobility
- To human nature gave, that its Creator
- Did not disdain to make himself its creature.
- Within thy womb rekindled was the love,
- By heat of which in the eternal peace
- After such wise this flower has germinated.
- Here unto us thou art a noonday torch
- Of charity, and below there among mortals
- Thou art the living fountain-head of hope.
- Lady, thou art so great, and so prevailing,
- That he who wishes grace, nor runs to thee,
- His aspirations without wings would fly.
- Not only thy benignity gives succour
- To him who asketh it, but oftentimes
- Forerunneth of its own accord the asking.
- In thee compassion is, in thee is pity,
- In thee magnificence; in thee unites
- Whate'er of goodness is in any creature.
- Now doth this man, who from the lowest depth
- Of the universe as far as here has seen
- One after one the spiritual lives,
- Supplicate thee through grace for so much power
- That with his eyes he may uplift himself
- Higher towards the uttermost salvation.
- And I, who never burned for my own seeing
- More than I do for his, all of my prayers
- Proffer to thee, and pray they come not short,
- That thou wouldst scatter from him every cloud
- Of his mortality so with thy prayers,
- That the Chief Pleasure be to him displayed.
- Still farther do I pray thee, Queen, who canst
- Whate'er thou wilt, that sound thou mayst preserve
- After so great a vision his affections.
- Let thy protection conquer human movements;
- See Beatrice and all the blessed ones
- My prayers to second clasp their hands to thee!"
- The eyes beloved and revered of God,
- Fastened upon the speaker, showed to us
- How grateful unto her are prayers devout;
- Then unto the Eternal Light they turned,
- On which it is not credible could be
- By any creature bent an eye so clear.
- And I, who to the end of all desires
- Was now approaching, even as I ought
- The ardour of desire within me ended.
- Bernard was beckoning unto me, and smiling,
- That I should upward look; but I already
- Was of my own accord such as he wished;
- Because my sight, becoming purified,
- Was entering more and more into the ray
- Of the High Light which of itself is true.
- From that time forward what I saw was greater
- Than our discourse, that to such vision yields,
- And yields the memory unto such excess.
- Even as he is who seeth in a dream,
- And after dreaming the imprinted passion
- Remains, and to his mind the rest returns not,
- Even such am I, for almost utterly
- Ceases my vision, and distilleth yet
- Within my heart the sweetness born of it;
- Even thus the snow is in the sun unsealed,
- Even thus upon the wind in the light leaves
- Were the soothsayings of the Sibyl lost.
- O Light Supreme, that dost so far uplift thee
- From the conceits of mortals, to my mind
- Of what thou didst appear re-lend a little,
- And make my tongue of so great puissance,
- That but a single sparkle of thy glory
- It may bequeath unto the future people;
- For by returning to my memory somewhat,
- And by a little sounding in these verses,
- More of thy victory shall be conceived!
- I think the keenness of the living ray
- Which I endured would have bewildered me,
- If but mine eyes had been averted from it;
- And I remember that I was more bold
- On this account to bear, so that I joined
- My aspect with the Glory Infinite.
- O grace abundant, by which I presumed
- To fix my sight upon the Light Eternal,
- So that the seeing I consumed therein!
- I saw that in its depth far down is lying
- Bound up with love together in one volume,
- What through the universe in leaves is scattered;
- Substance, and accident, and their operations,
- All interfused together in such wise
- That what I speak of is one simple light.
- The universal fashion of this knot
- Methinks I saw, since more abundantly
- In saying this I feel that I rejoice.
- One moment is more lethargy to me,
- Than five and twenty centuries to the emprise
- That startled Neptune with the shade of Argo!
- My mind in this wise wholly in suspense,
- Steadfast, immovable, attentive gazed,
- And evermore with gazing grew enkindled.
- In presence of that light one such becomes,
- That to withdraw therefrom for other prospect
- It is impossible he e'er consent;
- Because the good, which object is of will,
- Is gathered all in this, and out of it
- That is defective which is perfect there.
- Shorter henceforward will my language fall
- Of what I yet remember, than an infant's
- Who still his tongue doth moisten at the breast.
- Not because more than one unmingled semblance
- Was in the living light on which I looked,
- For it is always what it was before;
- But through the sight, that fortified itself
- In me by looking, one appearance only
- To me was ever changing as I changed.
- Within the deep and luminous subsistence
- Of the High Light appeared to me three circles,
- Of threefold colour and of one dimension,
- And by the second seemed the first reflected
- As Iris is by Iris, and the third
- Seemed fire that equally from both is breathed.
- O how all speech is feeble and falls short
- Of my conceit, and this to what I saw
- Is such, 'tis not enough to call it little!
- O Light Eterne, sole in thyself that dwellest,
- Sole knowest thyself, and, known unto thyself
- And knowing, lovest and smilest on thyself!
- That circulation, which being thus conceived
- Appeared in thee as a reflected light,
- When somewhat contemplated by mine eyes,
- Within itself, of its own very colour
- Seemed to me painted with our effigy,
- Wherefore my sight was all absorbed therein.
- As the geometrician, who endeavours
- To square the circle, and discovers not,
- By taking thought, the principle he wants,
- Even such was I at that new apparition;
- I wished to see how the image to the circle
- Conformed itself, and how it there finds place;
- But my own wings were not enough for this,
- Had it not been that then my mind there smote
- A flash of lightning, wherein came its wish.
- Here vigour failed the lofty fantasy:
- But now was turning my desire and will,
- Even as a wheel that equally is moved,
- The Love which moves the sun and the other stars.