Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
- When the Septentrion of the highest heaven
- (Which never either setting knew or rising,
- Nor veil of other cloud than that of sin,
- And which made every one therein aware
- Of his own duty, as the lower makes
- Whoever turns the helm to come to port)
- Motionless halted, the veracious people,
- That came at first between it and the Griffin,
- Turned themselves to the car, as to their peace.
- And one of them, as if by Heaven commissioned,
- Singing, "Veni, sponsa, de Libano"
- Shouted three times, and all the others after.
- Even as the Blessed at the final summons
- Shall rise up quickened each one from his cavern,
- Uplifting light the reinvested flesh,
- So upon that celestial chariot
- A hundred rose 'ad vocem tanti senis,'
- Ministers and messengers of life eternal.
- They all were saying, "Benedictus qui venis,"
- And, scattering flowers above and round about,
- "Manibus o date lilia plenis."
- Ere now have I beheld, as day began,
- The eastern hemisphere all tinged with rose,
- And the other heaven with fair serene adorned;
- And the sun's face, uprising, overshadowed
- So that by tempering influence of vapours
- For a long interval the eye sustained it;
- Thus in the bosom of a cloud of flowers
- Which from those hands angelical ascended,
- And downward fell again inside and out,
- Over her snow-white veil with olive cinct
- Appeared a lady under a green mantle,
- Vested in colour of the living flame.
- And my own spirit, that already now
- So long a time had been, that in her presence
- Trembling with awe it had not stood abashed,
- Without more knowledge having by mine eyes,
- Through occult virtue that from her proceeded
- Of ancient love the mighty influence felt.
- As soon as on my vision smote the power
- Sublime, that had already pierced me through
- Ere from my boyhood I had yet come forth,
- To the left hand I turned with that reliance
- With which the little child runs to his mother,
- When he has fear, or when he is afflicted,
- To say unto Virgilius: "Not a drachm
- Of blood remains in me, that does not tremble;
- I know the traces of the ancient flame."
- But us Virgilius of himself deprived
- Had left, Virgilius, sweetest of all fathers,
- Virgilius, to whom I for safety gave me:
- Nor whatsoever lost the ancient mother
- Availed my cheeks now purified from dew,
- That weeping they should not again be darkened.
- "Dante, because Virgilius has departed
- Do not weep yet, do not weep yet awhile;
- For by another sword thou need'st must weep."
- E'en as an admiral, who on poop and prow
- Comes to behold the people that are working
- In other ships, and cheers them to well-doing,
- Upon the left hand border of the car,
- When at the sound I turned of my own name,
- Which of necessity is here recorded,
- I saw the Lady, who erewhile appeared
- Veiled underneath the angelic festival,
- Direct her eyes to me across the river.
- Although the veil, that from her head descended,
- Encircled with the foliage of Minerva,
- Did not permit her to appear distinctly,
- In attitude still royally majestic
- Continued she, like unto one who speaks,
- And keeps his warmest utterance in reserve:
- "Look at me well; in sooth I'm Beatrice!
- How didst thou deign to come unto the Mountain?
- Didst thou not know that man is happy here?"
- Mine eyes fell downward into the clear fountain,
- But, seeing myself therein, I sought the grass,
- So great a shame did weigh my forehead down.
- As to the son the mother seems superb,
- So she appeared to me; for somewhat bitter
- Tasteth the savour of severe compassion.
- Silent became she, and the Angels sang
- Suddenly, "In te, Domine, speravi:"
- But beyond 'pedes meos' did not pass.
- Even as the snow among the living rafters
- Upon the back of Italy congeals,
- Blown on and drifted by Sclavonian winds,
- And then, dissolving, trickles through itself
- Whene'er the land that loses shadow breathes,
- So that it seems a fire that melts a taper;
- E'en thus was I without a tear or sigh,
- Before the song of those who sing for ever
- After the music of the eternal spheres.
- But when I heard in their sweet melodies
- Compassion for me, more than had they said,
- "O wherefore, lady, dost thou thus upbraid him?"
- The ice, that was about my heart congealed,
- To air and water changed, and in my anguish
- Through mouth and eyes came gushing from my breast.
- She, on the right-hand border of the car
- Still firmly standing, to those holy beings
- Thus her discourse directed afterwards:
- "Ye keep your watch in the eternal day,
- So that nor night nor sleep can steal from you
- One step the ages make upon their path;
- Therefore my answer is with greater care,
- That he may hear me who is weeping yonder,
- So that the sin and dole be of one measure.
- Not only by the work of those great wheels,
- That destine every seed unto some end,
- According as the stars are in conjunction,
- But by the largess of celestial graces,
- Which have such lofty vapours for their rain
- That near to them our sight approaches not,
- Such had this man become in his new life
- Potentially, that every righteous habit
- Would have made admirable proof in him;
- But so much more malignant and more savage
- Becomes the land untilled and with bad seed,
- The more good earthly vigour it possesses.
- Some time did I sustain him with my look;
- Revealing unto him my youthful eyes,
- I led him with me turned in the right way.
- As soon as ever of my second age
- I was upon the threshold and changed life,
- Himself from me he took and gave to others.
- When from the flesh to spirit I ascended,
- And beauty and virtue were in me increased,
- I was to him less dear and less delightful;
- And into ways untrue he turned his steps,
- Pursuing the false images of good,
- That never any promises fulfil;
- Nor prayer for inspiration me availed,
- By means of which in dreams and otherwise
- I called him back, so little did he heed them.
- So low he fell, that all appliances
- For his salvation were already short,
- Save showing him the people of perdition.
- For this I visited the gates of death,
- And unto him, who so far up has led him,
- My intercessions were with weeping borne.
- God's lofty fiat would be violated,
- If Lethe should be passed, and if such viands
- Should tasted be, withouten any scot
- Of penitence, that gushes forth in tears."