Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
- "Through me the way is to the city dolent;
- Through me the way is to eternal dole;
- Through me the way among the people lost.
- Justice incited my sublime Creator;
- Created me divine Omnipotence,
- The highest Wisdom and the primal Love.
- Before me there were no created things,
- Only eterne, and I eternal last.
- All hope abandon, ye who enter in!"
- These words in sombre colour I beheld
- Written upon the summit of a gate;
- Whence I: "Their sense is, Master, hard to me!"
- And he to me, as one experienced:
- "Here all suspicion needs must be abandoned,
- All cowardice must needs be here extinct.
- We to the place have come, where I have told thee
- Thou shalt behold the people dolorous
- Who have foregone the good of intellect."
- And after he had laid his hand on mine
- With joyful mien, whence I was comforted,
- He led me in among the secret things.
- There sighs, complaints, and ululations loud
- Resounded through the air without a star,
- Whence I, at the beginning, wept thereat.
- Languages diverse, horrible dialects,
- Accents of anger, words of agony,
- And voices high and hoarse, with sound of hands,
- Made up a tumult that goes whirling on
- For ever in that air for ever black,
- Even as the sand doth, when the whirlwind breathes.
- And I, who had my head with horror bound,
- Said: "Master, what is this which now I hear?
- What folk is this, which seems by pain so vanquished?"
- And he to me: "This miserable mode
- Maintain the melancholy souls of those
- Who lived withouten infamy or praise.
- Commingled are they with that caitiff choir
- Of Angels, who have not rebellious been,
- Nor faithful were to God, but were for self.
- The heavens expelled them, not to be less fair;
- Nor them the nethermore abyss receives,
- For glory none the damned would have from them."
- And I: "O Master, what so grievous is
- To these, that maketh them lament so sore?"
- He answered: "I will tell thee very briefly.
- These have no longer any hope of death;
- And this blind life of theirs is so debased,
- They envious are of every other fate.
- No fame of them the world permits to be;
- Misericord and Justice both disdain them.
- Let us not speak of them, but look, and pass."
- And I, who looked again, beheld a banner,
- Which, whirling round, ran on so rapidly,
- That of all pause it seemed to me indignant;
- And after it there came so long a train
- Of people, that I ne'er would have believed
- That ever Death so many had undone.
- When some among them I had recognised,
- I looked, and I beheld the shade of him
- Who made through cowardice the great refusal.
- Forthwith I comprehended, and was certain,
- That this the sect was of the caitiff wretches
- Hateful to God and to his enemies.
- These miscreants, who never were alive,
- Were naked, and were stung exceedingly
- By gadflies and by hornets that were there.
- These did their faces irrigate with blood,
- Which, with their tears commingled, at their feet
- By the disgusting worms was gathered up.
- And when to gazing farther I betook me.
- People I saw on a great river's bank;
- Whence said I: "Master, now vouchsafe to me,
- That I may know who these are, and what law
- Makes them appear so ready to pass over,
- As I discern athwart the dusky light."
- And he to me: "These things shall all be known
- To thee, as soon as we our footsteps stay
- Upon the dismal shore of Acheron."
- Then with mine eyes ashamed and downward cast,
- Fearing my words might irksome be to him,
- From speech refrained I till we reached the river.
- And lo! towards us coming in a boat
- An old man, hoary with the hair of eld,
- Crying: "Woe unto you, ye souls depraved!
- Hope nevermore to look upon the heavens;
- I come to lead you to the other shore,
- To the eternal shades in heat and frost.
- And thou, that yonder standest, living soul,
- Withdraw thee from these people, who are dead!"
- But when he saw that I did not withdraw,
- He said: "By other ways, by other ports
- Thou to the shore shalt come, not here, for passage;
- A lighter vessel needs must carry thee."
- And unto him the Guide: "Vex thee not, Charon;
- It is so willed there where is power to do
- That which is willed; and farther question not."
- Thereat were quieted the fleecy cheeks
- Of him the ferryman of the livid fen,
- Who round about his eyes had wheels of flame.
- But all those souls who weary were and naked
- Their colour changed and gnashed their teeth together,
- As soon as they had heard those cruel words.
- God they blasphemed and their progenitors,
- The human race, the place, the time, the seed
- Of their engendering and of their birth!
- Thereafter all together they drew back,
- Bitterly weeping, to the accursed shore,
- Which waiteth every man who fears not God.
- Charon the demon, with the eyes of glede,
- Beckoning to them, collects them all together,
- Beats with his oar whoever lags behind.
- As in the autumn-time the leaves fall off,
- First one and then another, till the branch
- Unto the earth surrenders all its spoils;
- In similar wise the evil seed of Adam
- Throw themselves from that margin one by one,
- At signals, as a bird unto its lure.
- So they depart across the dusky wave,
- And ere upon the other side they land,
- Again on this side a new troop assembles.
- "My son," the courteous Master said to me,
- "All those who perish in the wrath of God
- Here meet together out of every land;
- And ready are they to pass o'er the river,
- Because celestial Justice spurs them on,
- So that their fear is turned into desire.
- This way there never passes a good soul;
- And hence if Charon doth complain of thee,
- Well mayst thou know now what his speech imports."
- This being finished, all the dusk champaign
- Trembled so violently, that of that terror
- The recollection bathes me still with sweat.
- The land of tears gave forth a blast of wind,
- And fulminated a vermilion light,
- Which overmastered in me every sense,
- And as a man whom sleep hath seized I fell.