Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
- "O company elect to the great supper
- Of the Lamb benedight, who feedeth you
- So that for ever full is your desire,
- If by the grace of God this man foretaste
- Something of that which falleth from your table,
- Or ever death prescribe to him the time,
- Direct your mind to his immense desire,
- And him somewhat bedew; ye drinking are
- For ever at the fount whence comes his thought."
- Thus Beatrice; and those souls beatified
- Transformed themselves to spheres on steadfast poles,
- Flaming intensely in the guise of comets.
- And as the wheels in works of horologes
- Revolve so that the first to the beholder
- Motionless seems, and the last one to fly,
- So in like manner did those carols, dancing
- In different measure, of their affluence
- Give me the gauge, as they were swift or slow.
- From that one which I noted of most beauty
- Beheld I issue forth a fire so happy
- That none it left there of a greater brightness;
- And around Beatrice three several times
- It whirled itself with so divine a song,
- My fantasy repeats it not to me;
- Therefore the pen skips, and I write it not,
- Since our imagination for such folds,
- Much more our speech, is of a tint too glaring.
- "O holy sister mine, who us implorest
- With such devotion, by thine ardent love
- Thou dost unbind me from that beautiful sphere!"
- Thereafter, having stopped, the blessed fire
- Unto my Lady did direct its breath,
- Which spake in fashion as I here have said.
- And she: "O light eterne of the great man
- To whom our Lord delivered up the keys
- He carried down of this miraculous joy,
- This one examine on points light and grave,
- As good beseemeth thee, about the Faith
- By means of which thou on the sea didst walk.
- If he love well, and hope well, and believe,
- From thee 'tis hid not; for thou hast thy sight
- There where depicted everything is seen.
- But since this kingdom has made citizens
- By means of the true Faith, to glorify it
- 'Tis well he have the chance to speak thereof."
- As baccalaureate arms himself, and speaks not
- Until the master doth propose the question,
- To argue it, and not to terminate it,
- So did I arm myself with every reason,
- While she was speaking, that I might be ready
- For such a questioner and such profession.
- "Say, thou good Christian; manifest thyself;
- What is the Faith?" Whereat I raised my brow
- Unto that light wherefrom was this breathed forth.
- Then turned I round to Beatrice, and she
- Prompt signals made to me that I should pour
- The water forth from my internal fountain.
- "May grace, that suffers me to make confession,"
- Began I, "to the great centurion,
- Cause my conceptions all to be explicit!"
- And I continued: "As the truthful pen,
- Father, of thy dear brother wrote of it,
- Who put with thee Rome into the good way,
- Faith is the substance of the things we hope for,
- And evidence of those that are not seen;
- And this appears to me its quiddity."
- Then heard I: "Very rightly thou perceivest,
- If well thou understandest why he placed it
- With substances and then with evidences."
- And I thereafterward: "The things profound,
- That here vouchsafe to me their apparition,
- Unto all eyes below are so concealed,
- That they exist there only in belief,
- Upon the which is founded the high hope,
- And hence it takes the nature of a substance.
- And it behoveth us from this belief
- To reason without having other sight,
- And hence it has the nature of evidence."
- Then heard I: "If whatever is acquired
- Below by doctrine were thus understood,
- No sophist's subtlety would there find place."
- Thus was breathed forth from that enkindled love;
- Then added: "Very well has been gone over
- Already of this coin the alloy and weight;
- But tell me if thou hast it in thy purse?"
- And I: "Yes, both so shining and so round
- That in its stamp there is no peradventure."
- Thereafter issued from the light profound
- That there resplendent was: "This precious jewel,
- Upon the which is every virtue founded,
- Whence hadst thou it?" And I: "The large outpouring
- Of Holy Spirit, which has been diffused
- Upon the ancient parchments and the new,
- A syllogism is, which proved it to me
- With such acuteness, that, compared therewith,
- All demonstration seems to me obtuse."
- And then I heard: "The ancient and the new
- Postulates, that to thee are so conclusive,
- Why dost thou take them for the word divine?"
- And I: "The proofs, which show the truth to me,
- Are the works subsequent, whereunto Nature
- Ne'er heated iron yet, nor anvil beat."
- 'Twas answered me: "Say, who assureth thee
- That those works ever were? the thing itself
- That must be proved, nought else to thee affirms it."
- "Were the world to Christianity converted,"
- I said, "withouten miracles, this one
- Is such, the rest are not its hundredth part;
- Because that poor and fasting thou didst enter
- Into the field to sow there the good plant,
- Which was a vine and has become a thorn!"
- This being finished, the high, holy Court
- Resounded through the spheres, "One God we praise!"
- In melody that there above is chanted.
- And then that Baron, who from branch to branch,
- Examining, had thus conducted me,
- Till the extremest leaves we were approaching,
- Again began: "The Grace that dallying
- Plays with thine intellect thy mouth has opened,
- Up to this point, as it should opened be,
- So that I do approve what forth emerged;
- But now thou must express what thou believest,
- And whence to thy belief it was presented."
- "O holy father, spirit who beholdest
- What thou believedst so that thou o'ercamest,
- Towards the sepulchre, more youthful feet,"
- Began I, "thou dost wish me in this place
- The form to manifest of my prompt belief,
- And likewise thou the cause thereof demandest.
- And I respond: In one God I believe,
- Sole and eterne, who moveth all the heavens
- With love and with desire, himself unmoved;
- And of such faith not only have I proofs
- Physical and metaphysical, but gives them
- Likewise the truth that from this place rains down
- Through Moses, through the Prophets and the Psalms,
- Through the Evangel, and through you, who wrote
- After the fiery Spirit sanctified you;
- In Persons three eterne believe, and these
- One essence I believe, so one and trine
- They bear conjunction both with 'sunt' and 'est.'
- With the profound condition and divine
- Which now I touch upon, doth stamp my mind
- Ofttimes the doctrine evangelical.
- This the beginning is, this is the spark
- Which afterwards dilates to vivid flame,
- And, like a star in heaven, is sparkling in me."
- Even as a lord who hears what pleaseth him
- His servant straight embraces, gratulating
- For the good news as soon as he is silent;
- So, giving me its benediction, singing,
- Three times encircled me, when I was silent,
- The apostolic light, at whose command
- I spoken had, in speaking I so pleased him.