Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
- Nor speech the going, nor the going that
- Slackened; but talking we went bravely on,
- Even as a vessel urged by a good wind.
- And shadows, that appeared things doubly dead,
- From out the sepulchres of their eyes betrayed
- Wonder at me, aware that I was living.
- And I, continuing my colloquy,
- Said: "Peradventure he goes up more slowly
- Than he would do, for other people's sake.
- But tell me, if thou knowest, where is Piccarda;
- Tell me if any one of note I see
- Among this folk that gazes at me so."
- "My sister, who, 'twixt beautiful and good,
- I know not which was more, triumphs rejoicing
- Already in her crown on high Olympus."
- So said he first, and then: "'Tis not forbidden
- To name each other here, so milked away
- Is our resemblance by our dieting.
- This," pointing with his finger, "is Buonagiunta,
- Buonagiunta, of Lucca; and that face
- Beyond him there, more peaked than the others,
- Has held the holy Church within his arms;
- From Tours was he, and purges by his fasting
- Bolsena's eels and the Vernaccia wine."
- He named me many others one by one;
- And all contented seemed at being named,
- So that for this I saw not one dark look.
- I saw for hunger bite the empty air
- Ubaldin dalla Pila, and Boniface,
- Who with his crook had pastured many people.
- I saw Messer Marchese, who had leisure
- Once at Forli for drinking with less dryness,
- And he was one who ne'er felt satisfied.
- But as he does who scans, and then doth prize
- One more than others, did I him of Lucca,
- Who seemed to take most cognizance of me.
- He murmured, and I know not what Gentucca
- From that place heard I, where he felt the wound
- Of justice, that doth macerate them so.
- "O soul," I said, "that seemest so desirous
- To speak with me, do so that I may hear thee,
- And with thy speech appease thyself and me."
- "A maid is born, and wears not yet the veil,"
- Began he, "who to thee shall pleasant make
- My city, howsoever men may blame it.
- Thou shalt go on thy way with this prevision;
- If by my murmuring thou hast been deceived,
- True things hereafter will declare it to thee.
- But say if him I here behold, who forth
- Evoked the new-invented rhymes, beginning,
- 'Ladies, that have intelligence of love?'"
- And I to him: "One am I, who, whenever
- Love doth inspire me, note, and in that measure
- Which he within me dictates, singing go."
- "O brother, now I see," he said, "the knot
- Which me, the Notary, and Guittone held
- Short of the sweet new style that now I hear.
- I do perceive full clearly how your pens
- Go closely following after him who dictates,
- Which with our own forsooth came not to pass;
- And he who sets himself to go beyond,
- No difference sees from one style to another;"
- And as if satisfied, he held his peace.
- Even as the birds, that winter tow'rds the Nile,
- Sometimes into a phalanx form themselves,
- Then fly in greater haste, and go in file;
- In such wise all the people who were there,
- Turning their faces, hurried on their steps,
- Both by their leanness and their wishes light.
- And as a man, who weary is with trotting,
- Lets his companions onward go, and walks,
- Until he vents the panting of his chest;
- So did Forese let the holy flock
- Pass by, and came with me behind it, saying,
- "When will it be that I again shall see thee?"
- "How long," I answered, "I may live, I know not;
- Yet my return will not so speedy be,
- But I shall sooner in desire arrive;
- Because the place where I was set to live
- From day to day of good is more depleted,
- And unto dismal ruin seems ordained."
- "Now go," he said, "for him most guilty of it
- At a beast's tail behold I dragged along
- Towards the valley where is no repentance.
- Faster at every step the beast is going,
- Increasing evermore until it smites him,
- And leaves the body vilely mutilated.
- Not long those wheels shall turn," and he uplifted
- His eyes to heaven, "ere shall be clear to thee
- That which my speech no farther can declare.
- Now stay behind; because the time so precious
- Is in this kingdom, that I lose too much
- By coming onward thus abreast with thee."
- As sometimes issues forth upon a gallop
- A cavalier from out a troop that ride,
- And seeks the honour of the first encounter,
- So he with greater strides departed from us;
- And on the road remained I with those two,
- Who were such mighty marshals of the world.
- And when before us he had gone so far
- Mine eyes became to him such pursuivants
- As was my understanding to his words,
- Appeared to me with laden and living boughs
- Another apple-tree, and not far distant,
- From having but just then turned thitherward.
- People I saw beneath it lift their hands,
- And cry I know not what towards the leaves,
- Like little children eager and deluded,
- Who pray, and he they pray to doth not answer,
- But, to make very keen their appetite,
- Holds their desire aloft, and hides it not.
- Then they departed as if undeceived;
- And now we came unto the mighty tree
- Which prayers and tears so manifold refuses.
- "Pass farther onward without drawing near;
- The tree of which Eve ate is higher up,
- And out of that one has this tree been raised."
- Thus said I know not who among the branches;
- Whereat Virgilius, Statius, and myself
- Went crowding forward on the side that rises.
- "Be mindful," said he, "of the accursed ones
- Formed of the cloud-rack, who inebriate
- Combated Theseus with their double breasts;
- And of the Jews who showed them soft in drinking,
- Whence Gideon would not have them for companions
- When he tow'rds Midian the hills descended."
- Thus, closely pressed to one of the two borders,
- On passed we, hearing sins of gluttony,
- Followed forsooth by miserable gains;
- Then set at large upon the lonely road,
- A thousand steps and more we onward went,
- In contemplation, each without a word.
- "What go ye thinking thus, ye three alone?"
- Said suddenly a voice, whereat I started
- As terrified and timid beasts are wont.
- I raised my head to see who this might be,
- And never in a furnace was there seen
- Metals or glass so lucent and so red
- As one I saw who said: "If it may please you
- To mount aloft, here it behoves you turn;
- This way goes he who goeth after peace."
- His aspect had bereft me of my sight,
- So that I turned me back unto my Teachers,
- Like one who goeth as his hearing guides him.
- And as, the harbinger of early dawn,
- The air of May doth move and breathe out fragrance,
- Impregnate all with herbage and with flowers,
- So did I feel a breeze strike in the midst
- My front, and felt the moving of the plumes
- That breathed around an odour of ambrosia;
- And heard it said: "Blessed are they whom grace
- So much illumines, that the love of taste
- Excites not in their breasts too great desire,
- Hungering at all times so far as is just."