Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
- Even as a bird, 'mid the beloved leaves,
- Quiet upon the nest of her sweet brood
- Throughout the night, that hideth all things from us,
- Who, that she may behold their longed-for looks
- And find the food wherewith to nourish them,
- In which, to her, grave labours grateful are,
- Anticipates the time on open spray
- And with an ardent longing waits the sun,
- Gazing intent as soon as breaks the dawn:
- Even thus my Lady standing was, erect
- And vigilant, turned round towards the zone
- Underneath which the sun displays less haste;
- So that beholding her distraught and wistful,
- Such I became as he is who desiring
- For something yearns, and hoping is appeased.
- But brief the space from one When to the other;
- Of my awaiting, say I, and the seeing
- The welkin grow resplendent more and more.
- And Beatrice exclaimed: "Behold the hosts
- Of Christ's triumphal march, and all the fruit
- Harvested by the rolling of these spheres!"
- It seemed to me her face was all aflame;
- And eyes she had so full of ecstasy
- That I must needs pass on without describing.
- As when in nights serene of the full moon
- Smiles Trivia among the nymphs eternal
- Who paint the firmament through all its gulfs,
- Saw I, above the myriads of lamps,
- A Sun that one and all of them enkindled,
- E'en as our own doth the supernal sights,
- And through the living light transparent shone
- The lucent substance so intensely clear
- Into my sight, that I sustained it not.
- O Beatrice, thou gentle guide and dear!
- To me she said: "What overmasters thee
- A virtue is from which naught shields itself.
- There are the wisdom and the omnipotence
- That oped the thoroughfares 'twixt heaven and earth,
- For which there erst had been so long a yearning."
- As fire from out a cloud unlocks itself,
- Dilating so it finds not room therein,
- And down, against its nature, falls to earth,
- So did my mind, among those aliments
- Becoming larger, issue from itself,
- And that which it became cannot remember.
- "Open thine eyes, and look at what I am:
- Thou hast beheld such things, that strong enough
- Hast thou become to tolerate my smile."
- I was as one who still retains the feeling
- Of a forgotten vision, and endeavours
- In vain to bring it back into his mind,
- When I this invitation heard, deserving
- Of so much gratitude, it never fades
- Out of the book that chronicles the past.
- If at this moment sounded all the tongues
- That Polyhymnia and her sisters made
- Most lubrical with their delicious milk,
- To aid me, to a thousandth of the truth
- It would not reach, singing the holy smile
- And how the holy aspect it illumed.
- And therefore, representing Paradise,
- The sacred poem must perforce leap over,
- Even as a man who finds his way cut off;
- But whoso thinketh of the ponderous theme,
- And of the mortal shoulder laden with it,
- Should blame it not, if under this it tremble.
- It is no passage for a little boat
- This which goes cleaving the audacious prow,
- Nor for a pilot who would spare himself.
- "Why doth my face so much enamour thee,
- That to the garden fair thou turnest not,
- Which under the rays of Christ is blossoming?
- There is the Rose in which the Word Divine
- Became incarnate; there the lilies are
- By whose perfume the good way was discovered."
- Thus Beatrice; and I, who to her counsels
- Was wholly ready, once again betook me
- Unto the battle of the feeble brows.
- As in the sunshine, that unsullied streams
- Through fractured cloud, ere now a meadow of flowers
- Mine eyes with shadow covered o'er have seen,
- So troops of splendours manifold I saw
- Illumined from above with burning rays,
- Beholding not the source of the effulgence.
- O power benignant that dost so imprint them!
- Thou didst exalt thyself to give more scope
- There to mine eyes, that were not strong enough.
- The name of that fair flower I e'er invoke
- Morning and evening utterly enthralled
- My soul to gaze upon the greater fire.
- And when in both mine eyes depicted were
- The glory and greatness of the living star
- Which there excelleth, as it here excelled,
- Athwart the heavens a little torch descended
- Formed in a circle like a coronal,
- And cinctured it, and whirled itself about it.
- Whatever melody most sweetly soundeth
- On earth, and to itself most draws the soul,
- Would seem a cloud that, rent asunder, thunders,
- Compared unto the sounding of that lyre
- Wherewith was crowned the sapphire beautiful,
- Which gives the clearest heaven its sapphire hue.
- "I am Angelic Love, that circle round
- The joy sublime which breathes from out the womb
- That was the hostelry of our Desire;
- And I shall circle, Lady of Heaven, while
- Thou followest thy Son, and mak'st diviner
- The sphere supreme, because thou enterest there."
- Thus did the circulated melody
- Seal itself up; and all the other lights
- Were making to resound the name of Mary.
- The regal mantle of the volumes all
- Of that world, which most fervid is and living
- With breath of God and with his works and ways,
- Extended over us its inner border,
- So very distant, that the semblance of it
- There where I was not yet appeared to me.
- Therefore mine eyes did not possess the power
- Of following the incoronated flame,
- Which mounted upward near to its own seed.
- And as a little child, that towards its mother
- Stretches its arms, when it the milk has taken,
- Through impulse kindled into outward flame,
- Each of those gleams of whiteness upward reached
- So with its summit, that the deep affection
- They had for Mary was revealed to me.
- Thereafter they remained there in my sight,
- 'Regina coeli' singing with such sweetness,
- That ne'er from me has the delight departed.
- O, what exuberance is garnered up
- Within those richest coffers, which had been
- Good husbandmen for sowing here below!
- There they enjoy and live upon the treasure
- Which was acquired while weeping in the exile
- Of Babylon, wherein the gold was left.
- There triumpheth, beneath the exalted Son
- Of God and Mary, in his victory,
- Both with the ancient council and the new,
- He who doth keep the keys of such a glory.