Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
- The while among the verdant leaves mine eyes
- I riveted, as he is wont to do
- Who wastes his life pursuing little birds,
- My more than Father said unto me: "Son,
- Come now; because the time that is ordained us
- More usefully should be apportioned out."
- I turned my face and no less soon my steps
- Unto the Sages, who were speaking so
- They made the going of no cost to me;
- And lo! were heard a song and a lament,
- "Labia mea, Domine," in fashion
- Such that delight and dolence it brought forth.
- "O my sweet Father, what is this I hear?"
- Began I; and he answered: "Shades that go
- Perhaps the knot unloosing of their debt."
- In the same way that thoughtful pilgrims do,
- Who, unknown people on the road o'ertaking,
- Turn themselves round to them, and do not stop,
- Even thus, behind us with a swifter motion
- Coming and passing onward, gazed upon us
- A crowd of spirits silent and devout.
- Each in his eyes was dark and cavernous,
- Pallid in face, and so emaciate
- That from the bones the skin did shape itself.
- I do not think that so to merest rind
- Could Erisichthon have been withered up
- By famine, when most fear he had of it.
- Thinking within myself I said: "Behold,
- This is the folk who lost Jerusalem,
- When Mary made a prey of her own son."
- Their sockets were like rings without the gems;
- Whoever in the face of men reads 'omo'
- Might well in these have recognised the 'm.'
- Who would believe the odour of an apple,
- Begetting longing, could consume them so,
- And that of water, without knowing how?
- I still was wondering what so famished them,
- For the occasion not yet manifest
- Of their emaciation and sad squalor;
- And lo! from out the hollow of his head
- His eyes a shade turned on me, and looked keenly;
- Then cried aloud: "What grace to me is this?"
- Never should I have known him by his look;
- But in his voice was evident to me
- That which his aspect had suppressed within it.
- This spark within me wholly re-enkindled
- My recognition of his altered face,
- And I recalled the features of Forese.
- "Ah, do not look at this dry leprosy,"
- Entreated he, "which doth my skin discolour,
- Nor at default of flesh that I may have;
- But tell me truth of thee, and who are those
- Two souls, that yonder make for thee an escort;
- Do not delay in speaking unto me."
- "That face of thine, which dead I once bewept,
- Gives me for weeping now no lesser grief,"
- I answered him, "beholding it so changed!
- But tell me, for God's sake, what thus denudes you?
- Make me not speak while I am marvelling,
- For ill speaks he who's full of other longings."
- And he to me: "From the eternal council
- Falls power into the water and the tree
- Behind us left, whereby I grow so thin.
- All of this people who lamenting sing,
- For following beyond measure appetite
- In hunger and thirst are here re-sanctified.
- Desire to eat and drink enkindles in us
- The scent that issues from the apple-tree,
- And from the spray that sprinkles o'er the verdure;
- And not a single time alone, this ground
- Encompassing, is refreshed our pain,—
- I say our pain, and ought to say our solace,—
- For the same wish doth lead us to the tree
- Which led the Christ rejoicing to say 'Eli,'
- When with his veins he liberated us."
- And I to him: "Forese, from that day
- When for a better life thou changedst worlds,
- Up to this time five years have not rolled round.
- If sooner were the power exhausted in thee
- Of sinning more, than thee the hour surprised
- Of that good sorrow which to God reweds us,
- How hast thou come up hitherward already?
- I thought to find thee down there underneath,
- Where time for time doth restitution make."
- And he to me: "Thus speedily has led me
- To drink of the sweet wormwood of these torments,
- My Nella with her overflowing tears;
- She with her prayers devout and with her sighs
- Has drawn me from the coast where one where one awaits,
- And from the other circles set me free.
- So much more dear and pleasing is to God
- My little widow, whom so much I loved,
- As in good works she is the more alone;
- For the Barbagia of Sardinia
- By far more modest in its women is
- Than the Barbagia I have left her in.
- O brother sweet, what wilt thou have me say?
- A future time is in my sight already,
- To which this hour will not be very old,
- When from the pulpit shall be interdicted
- To the unblushing womankind of Florence
- To go about displaying breast and paps.
- What savages were e'er, what Saracens,
- Who stood in need, to make them covered go,
- Of spiritual or other discipline?
- But if the shameless women were assured
- Of what swift Heaven prepares for them, already
- Wide open would they have their mouths to howl;
- For if my foresight here deceive me not,
- They shall be sad ere he has bearded cheeks
- Who now is hushed to sleep with lullaby.
- O brother, now no longer hide thee from me;
- See that not only I, but all these people
- Are gazing there, where thou dost veil the sun."
- Whence I to him: "If thou bring back to mind
- What thou with me hast been and I with thee,
- The present memory will be grievous still.
- Out of that life he turned me back who goes
- In front of me, two days agone when round
- The sister of him yonder showed herself,"
- And to the sun I pointed. "Through the deep
- Night of the truly dead has this one led me,
- With this true flesh, that follows after him.
- Thence his encouragements have led me up,
- Ascending and still circling round the mount
- That you doth straighten, whom the world made crooked.
- He says that he will bear me company,
- Till I shall be where Beatrice will be;
- There it behoves me to remain without him.
- This is Virgilius, who thus says to me,"
- And him I pointed at; "the other is
- That shade for whom just now shook every slope
- Your realm, that from itself discharges him."