Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
- When he who all the world illuminates
- Out of our hemisphere so far descends
- That on all sides the daylight is consumed,
- The heaven, that erst by him alone was kindled,
- Doth suddenly reveal itself again
- By many lights, wherein is one resplendent.
- And came into my mind this act of heaven,
- When the ensign of the world and of its leaders
- Had silent in the blessed beak become;
- Because those living luminaries all,
- By far more luminous, did songs begin
- Lapsing and falling from my memory.
- O gentle Love, that with a smile dost cloak thee,
- How ardent in those sparks didst thou appear,
- That had the breath alone of holy thoughts!
- After the precious and pellucid crystals,
- With which begemmed the sixth light I beheld,
- Silence imposed on the angelic bells,
- I seemed to hear the murmuring of a river
- That clear descendeth down from rock to rock,
- Showing the affluence of its mountain-top.
- And as the sound upon the cithern's neck
- Taketh its form, and as upon the vent
- Of rustic pipe the wind that enters it,
- Even thus, relieved from the delay of waiting,
- That murmuring of the eagle mounted up
- Along its neck, as if it had been hollow.
- There it became a voice, and issued thence
- From out its beak, in such a form of words
- As the heart waited for wherein I wrote them.
- "The part in me which sees and bears the sun
- In mortal eagles," it began to me,
- "Now fixedly must needs be looked upon;
- For of the fires of which I make my figure,
- Those whence the eye doth sparkle in my head
- Of all their orders the supremest are.
- He who is shining in the midst as pupil
- Was once the singer of the Holy Spirit,
- Who bore the ark from city unto city;
- Now knoweth he the merit of his song,
- In so far as effect of his own counsel,
- By the reward which is commensurate.
- Of five, that make a circle for my brow,
- He that approacheth nearest to my beak
- Did the poor widow for her son console;
- Now knoweth he how dearly it doth cost
- Not following Christ, by the experience
- Of this sweet life and of its opposite.
- He who comes next in the circumference
- Of which I speak, upon its highest arc,
- Did death postpone by penitence sincere;
- Now knoweth he that the eternal judgment
- Suffers no change, albeit worthy prayer
- Maketh below to-morrow of to-day.
- The next who follows, with the laws and me,
- Under the good intent that bore bad fruit
- Became a Greek by ceding to the pastor;
- Now knoweth he how all the ill deduced
- From his good action is not harmful to him,
- Although the world thereby may be destroyed.
- And he, whom in the downward arc thou seest,
- Guglielmo was, whom the same land deplores
- That weepeth Charles and Frederick yet alive;
- Now knoweth he how heaven enamoured is
- With a just king; and in the outward show
- Of his effulgence he reveals it still.
- Who would believe, down in the errant world,
- That e'er the Trojan Ripheus in this round
- Could be the fifth one of the holy lights?
- Now knoweth he enough of what the world
- Has not the power to see of grace divine,
- Although his sight may not discern the bottom."
- Like as a lark that in the air expatiates,
- First singing and then silent with content
- Of the last sweetness that doth satisfy her,
- Such seemed to me the image of the imprint
- Of the eternal pleasure, by whose will
- Doth everything become the thing it is.
- And notwithstanding to my doubt I was
- As glass is to the colour that invests it,
- To wait the time in silence it endured not,
- But forth from out my mouth, "What things are these?"
- Extorted with the force of its own weight;
- Whereat I saw great joy of coruscation.
- Thereafterward with eye still more enkindled
- The blessed standard made to me reply,
- To keep me not in wonderment suspended:
- "I see that thou believest in these things
- Because I say them, but thou seest not how;
- So that, although believed in, they are hidden.
- Thou doest as he doth who a thing by name
- Well apprehendeth, but its quiddity
- Cannot perceive, unless another show it.
- 'Regnum coelorum' suffereth violence
- From fervent love, and from that living hope
- That overcometh the Divine volition;
- Not in the guise that man o'ercometh man,
- But conquers it because it will be conquered,
- And conquered conquers by benignity.
- The first life of the eyebrow and the fifth
- Cause thee astonishment, because with them
- Thou seest the region of the angels painted.
- They passed not from their bodies, as thou thinkest,
- Gentiles, but Christians in the steadfast faith
- Of feet that were to suffer and had suffered.
- For one from Hell, where no one e'er turns back
- Unto good will, returned unto his bones,
- And that of living hope was the reward,—
- Of living hope, that placed its efficacy
- In prayers to God made to resuscitate him,
- So that 'twere possible to move his will.
- The glorious soul concerning which I speak,
- Returning to the flesh, where brief its stay,
- Believed in Him who had the power to aid it;
- And, in believing, kindled to such fire
- Of genuine love, that at the second death
- Worthy it was to come unto this joy.
- The other one, through grace, that from so deep
- A fountain wells that never hath the eye
- Of any creature reached its primal wave,
- Set all his love below on righteousness;
- Wherefore from grace to grace did God unclose
- His eye to our redemption yet to be,
- Whence he believed therein, and suffered not
- From that day forth the stench of paganism,
- And he reproved therefor the folk perverse.
- Those Maidens three, whom at the right-hand wheel
- Thou didst behold, were unto him for baptism
- More than a thousand years before baptizing.
- O thou predestination, how remote
- Thy root is from the aspect of all those
- Who the First Cause do not behold entire!
- And you, O mortals! hold yourselves restrained
- In judging; for ourselves, who look on God,
- We do not know as yet all the elect;
- And sweet to us is such a deprivation,
- Because our good in this good is made perfect,
- That whatsoe'er God wills, we also will."
- After this manner by that shape divine,
- To make clear in me my short-sightedness,
- Was given to me a pleasant medicine;
- And as good singer a good lutanist
- Accompanies with vibrations of the chords,
- Whereby more pleasantness the song acquires,
- So, while it spake, do I remember me
- That I beheld both of those blessed lights,
- Even as the winking of the eyes concords,
- Moving unto the words their little flames.