Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
- Day was departing, and the embrowned air
- Released the animals that are on earth
- From their fatigues; and I the only one
- Made myself ready to sustain the war,
- Both of the way and likewise of the woe,
- Which memory that errs not shall retrace.
- O Muses, O high genius, now assist me!
- O memory, that didst write down what I saw,
- Here thy nobility shall be manifest!
- And I began: "Poet, who guidest me,
- Regard my manhood, if it be sufficient,
- Ere to the arduous pass thou dost confide me.
- Thou sayest, that of Silvius the parent,
- While yet corruptible, unto the world
- Immortal went, and was there bodily.
- But if the adversary of all evil
- Was courteous, thinking of the high effect
- That issue would from him, and who, and what,
- To men of intellect unmeet it seems not;
- For he was of great Rome, and of her empire
- In the empyreal heaven as father chosen;
- The which and what, wishing to speak the truth,
- Were stablished as the holy place, wherein
- Sits the successor of the greatest Peter.
- Upon this journey, whence thou givest him vaunt,
- Things did he hear, which the occasion were
- Both of his victory and the papal mantle.
- Thither went afterwards the Chosen Vessel,
- To bring back comfort thence unto that Faith,
- Which of salvation's way is the beginning.
- But I, why thither come, or who concedes it?
- I not Aeneas am, I am not Paul,
- Nor I, nor others, think me worthy of it.
- Therefore, if I resign myself to come,
- I fear the coming may be ill-advised;
- Thou'rt wise, and knowest better than I speak."
- And as he is, who unwills what he willed,
- And by new thoughts doth his intention change,
- So that from his design he quite withdraws,
- Such I became, upon that dark hillside,
- Because, in thinking, I consumed the emprise,
- Which was so very prompt in the beginning.
- "If I have well thy language understood,"
- Replied that shade of the Magnanimous,
- "Thy soul attainted is with cowardice,
- Which many times a man encumbers so,
- It turns him back from honoured enterprise,
- As false sight doth a beast, when he is shy.
- That thou mayst free thee from this apprehension,
- I'll tell thee why I came, and what I heard
- At the first moment when I grieved for thee.
- Among those was I who are in suspense,
- And a fair, saintly Lady called to me
- In such wise, I besought her to command me.
- Her eyes where shining brighter than the Star;
- And she began to say, gentle and low,
- With voice angelical, in her own language:
- 'O spirit courteous of Mantua,
- Of whom the fame still in the world endures,
- And shall endure, long-lasting as the world;
- A friend of mine, and not the friend of fortune,
- Upon the desert slope is so impeded
- Upon his way, that he has turned through terror,
- And may, I fear, already be so lost,
- That I too late have risen to his succour,
- From that which I have heard of him in Heaven.
- Bestir thee now, and with thy speech ornate,
- And with what needful is for his release,
- Assist him so, that I may be consoled.
- Beatrice am I, who do bid thee go;
- I come from there, where I would fain return;
- Love moved me, which compelleth me to speak.
- When I shall be in presence of my Lord,
- Full often will I praise thee unto him.'
- Then paused she, and thereafter I began:
- 'O Lady of virtue, thou alone through whom
- The human race exceedeth all contained
- Within the heaven that has the lesser circles,
- So grateful unto me is thy commandment,
- To obey, if 'twere already done, were late;
- No farther need'st thou ope to me thy wish.
- But the cause tell me why thou dost not shun
- The here descending down into this centre,
- From the vast place thou burnest to return to.'
- 'Since thou wouldst fain so inwardly discern,
- Briefly will I relate,' she answered me,
- 'Why I am not afraid to enter here.
- Of those things only should one be afraid
- Which have the power of doing others harm;
- Of the rest, no; because they are not fearful.
- God in his mercy such created me
- That misery of yours attains me not,
- Nor any flame assails me of this burning.
- A gentle Lady is in Heaven, who grieves
- At this impediment, to which I send thee,
- So that stern judgment there above is broken.
- In her entreaty she besought Lucia,
- And said, "Thy faithful one now stands in need
- Of thee, and unto thee I recommend him."
- Lucia, foe of all that cruel is,
- Hastened away, and came unto the place
- Where I was sitting with the ancient Rachel.
- "Beatrice" said she, "the true praise of God,
- Why succourest thou not him, who loved thee so,
- For thee he issued from the vulgar herd?
- Dost thou not hear the pity of his plaint?
- Dost thou not see the death that combats him
- Beside that flood, where ocean has no vaunt?"
- Never were persons in the world so swift
- To work their weal and to escape their woe,
- As I, after such words as these were uttered,
- Came hither downward from my blessed seat,
- Confiding in thy dignified discourse,
- Which honours thee, and those who've listened to it.'
- After she thus had spoken unto me,
- Weeping, her shining eyes she turned away;
- Whereby she made me swifter in my coming;
- And unto thee I came, as she desired;
- I have delivered thee from that wild beast,
- Which barred the beautiful mountain's short ascent.
- What is it, then? Why, why dost thou delay?
- Why is such baseness bedded in thy heart?
- Daring and hardihood why hast thou not,
- Seeing that three such Ladies benedight
- Are caring for thee in the court of Heaven,
- And so much good my speech doth promise thee?"
- Even as the flowerets, by nocturnal chill,
- Bowed down and closed, when the sun whitens them,
- Uplift themselves all open on their stems;
- Such I became with my exhausted strength,
- And such good courage to my heart there coursed,
- That I began, like an intrepid person:
- "O she compassionate, who succoured me,
- And courteous thou, who hast obeyed so soon
- The words of truth which she addressed to thee!
- Thou hast my heart so with desire disposed
- To the adventure, with these words of thine,
- That to my first intent I have returned.
- Now go, for one sole will is in us both,
- Thou Leader, and thou Lord, and Master thou."
- Thus said I to him; and when he had moved,
- I entered on the deep and savage way.