Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
- Not yet had Nessus reached the other side,
- When we had put ourselves within a wood,
- That was not marked by any path whatever.
- Not foliage green, but of a dusky colour,
- Not branches smooth, but gnarled and intertangled,
- Not apple-trees were there, but thorns with poison.
- Such tangled thickets have not, nor so dense,
- Those savage wild beasts, that in hatred hold
- 'Twixt Cecina and Corneto the tilled places.
- There do the hideous Harpies make their nests,
- Who chased the Trojans from the Strophades,
- With sad announcement of impending doom;
- Broad wings have they, and necks and faces human,
- And feet with claws, and their great bellies fledged;
- They make laments upon the wondrous trees.
- And the good Master: "Ere thou enter farther,
- Know that thou art within the second round,"
- Thus he began to say, "and shalt be, till
- Thou comest out upon the horrible sand;
- Therefore look well around, and thou shalt see
- Things that will credence give unto my speech."
- I heard on all sides lamentations uttered,
- And person none beheld I who might make them,
- Whence, utterly bewildered, I stood still.
- I think he thought that I perhaps might think
- So many voices issued through those trunks
- From people who concealed themselves from us;
- Therefore the Master said: "If thou break off
- Some little spray from any of these trees,
- The thoughts thou hast will wholly be made vain."
- Then stretched I forth my hand a little forward,
- And plucked a branchlet off from a great thorn;
- And the trunk cried, "Why dost thou mangle me?"
- After it had become embrowned with blood,
- It recommenced its cry: "Why dost thou rend me?
- Hast thou no spirit of pity whatsoever?
- Men once we were, and now are changed to trees;
- Indeed, thy hand should be more pitiful,
- Even if the souls of serpents we had been."
- As out of a green brand, that is on fire
- At one of the ends, and from the other drips
- And hisses with the wind that is escaping;
- So from that splinter issued forth together
- Both words and blood; whereat I let the tip
- Fall, and stood like a man who is afraid.
- "Had he been able sooner to believe,"
- My Sage made answer, "O thou wounded soul,
- What only in my verses he has seen,
- Not upon thee had he stretched forth his hand;
- Whereas the thing incredible has caused me
- To put him to an act which grieveth me.
- But tell him who thou wast, so that by way
- Of some amends thy fame he may refresh
- Up in the world, to which he can return."
- And the trunk said: "So thy sweet words allure me,
- I cannot silent be; and you be vexed not,
- That I a little to discourse am tempted.
- I am the one who both keys had in keeping
- Of Frederick's heart, and turned them to and fro
- So softly in unlocking and in locking,
- That from his secrets most men I withheld;
- Fidelity I bore the glorious office
- So great, I lost thereby my sleep and pulses.
- The courtesan who never from the dwelling
- Of Caesar turned aside her strumpet eyes,
- Death universal and the vice of courts,
- Inflamed against me all the other minds,
- And they, inflamed, did so inflame Augustus,
- That my glad honours turned to dismal mournings.
- My spirit, in disdainful exultation,
- Thinking by dying to escape disdain,
- Made me unjust against myself, the just.
- I, by the roots unwonted of this wood,
- Do swear to you that never broke I faith
- Unto my lord, who was so worthy of honour;
- And to the world if one of you return,
- Let him my memory comfort, which is lying
- Still prostrate from the blow that envy dealt it."
- Waited awhile, and then: "Since he is silent,"
- The Poet said to me, "lose not the time,
- But speak, and question him, if more may please thee."
- Whence I to him: "Do thou again inquire
- Concerning what thou thinks't will satisfy me;
- For I cannot, such pity is in my heart."
- Therefore he recommenced: "So may the man
- Do for thee freely what thy speech implores,
- Spirit incarcerate, again be pleased
- To tell us in what way the soul is bound
- Within these knots; and tell us, if thou canst,
- If any from such members e'er is freed."
- Then blew the trunk amain, and afterward
- The wind was into such a voice converted:
- "With brevity shall be replied to you.
- When the exasperated soul abandons
- The body whence it rent itself away,
- Minos consigns it to the seventh abyss.
- It falls into the forest, and no part
- Is chosen for it; but where Fortune hurls it,
- There like a grain of spelt it germinates.
- It springs a sapling, and a forest tree;
- The Harpies, feeding then upon its leaves,
- Do pain create, and for the pain an outlet.
- Like others for our spoils shall we return;
- But not that any one may them revest,
- For 'tis not just to have what one casts off.
- Here we shall drag them, and along the dismal
- Forest our bodies shall suspended be,
- Each to the thorn of his molested shade."
- We were attentive still unto the trunk,
- Thinking that more it yet might wish to tell us,
- When by a tumult we were overtaken,
- In the same way as he is who perceives
- The boar and chase approaching to his stand,
- Who hears the crashing of the beasts and branches;
- And two behold! upon our left-hand side,
- Naked and scratched, fleeing so furiously,
- That of the forest, every fan they broke.
- He who was in advance: "Now help, Death, help!"
- And the other one, who seemed to lag too much,
- Was shouting: "Lano, were not so alert
- Those legs of thine at joustings of the Toppo!"
- And then, perchance because his breath was failing,
- He grouped himself together with a bush.
- Behind them was the forest full of black
- She-mastiffs, ravenous, and swift of foot
- As greyhounds, who are issuing from the chain.
- On him who had crouched down they set their teeth,
- And him they lacerated piece by piece,
- Thereafter bore away those aching members.
- Thereat my Escort took me by the hand,
- And led me to the bush, that all in vain
- Was weeping from its bloody lacerations.
- "O Jacopo," it said, "of Sant' Andrea,
- What helped it thee of me to make a screen?
- What blame have I in thy nefarious life?"
- When near him had the Master stayed his steps,
- He said: "Who wast thou, that through wounds so many
- Art blowing out with blood thy dolorous speech?"
- And he to us: "O souls, that hither come
- To look upon the shameful massacre
- That has so rent away from me my leaves,
- Gather them up beneath the dismal bush;
- I of that city was which to the Baptist
- Changed its first patron, wherefore he for this
- Forever with his art will make it sad.
- And were it not that on the pass of Arno
- Some glimpses of him are remaining still,
- Those citizens, who afterwards rebuilt it
- Upon the ashes left by Attila,
- In vain had caused their labour to be done.
- Of my own house I made myself a gibbet."