Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
- Abreast, like oxen going in a yoke,
- I with that heavy-laden soul went on,
- As long as the sweet pedagogue permitted;
- But when he said, "Leave him, and onward pass,
- For here 'tis good that with the sail and oars,
- As much as may be, each push on his barque;"
- Upright, as walking wills it, I redressed
- My person, notwithstanding that my thoughts
- Remained within me downcast and abashed.
- I had moved on, and followed willingly
- The footsteps of my Master, and we both
- Already showed how light of foot we were,
- When unto me he said: "Cast down thine eyes;
- 'Twere well for thee, to alleviate the way,
- To look upon the bed beneath thy feet."
- As, that some memory may exist of them,
- Above the buried dead their tombs in earth
- Bear sculptured on them what they were before;
- Whence often there we weep for them afresh,
- From pricking of remembrance, which alone
- To the compassionate doth set its spur;
- So saw I there, but of a better semblance
- In point of artifice, with figures covered
- Whate'er as pathway from the mount projects.
- I saw that one who was created noble
- More than all other creatures, down from heaven
- Flaming with lightnings fall upon one side.
- I saw Briareus smitten by the dart
- Celestial, lying on the other side,
- Heavy upon the earth by mortal frost.
- I saw Thymbraeus, Pallas saw, and Mars,
- Still clad in armour round about their father,
- Gaze at the scattered members of the giants.
- I saw, at foot of his great labour, Nimrod,
- As if bewildered, looking at the people
- Who had been proud with him in Sennaar.
- O Niobe! with what afflicted eyes
- Thee I beheld upon the pathway traced,
- Between thy seven and seven children slain!
- O Saul! how fallen upon thy proper sword
- Didst thou appear there lifeless in Gilboa,
- That felt thereafter neither rain nor dew!
- O mad Arachne! so I thee beheld
- E'en then half spider, sad upon the shreds
- Of fabric wrought in evil hour for thee!
- O Rehoboam! no more seems to threaten
- Thine image there; but full of consternation
- A chariot bears it off, when none pursues!
- Displayed moreo'er the adamantine pavement
- How unto his own mother made Alcmaeon
- Costly appear the luckless ornament;
- Displayed how his own sons did throw themselves
- Upon Sennacherib within the temple,
- And how, he being dead, they left him there;
- Displayed the ruin and the cruel carnage
- That Tomyris wrought, when she to Cyrus said,
- "Blood didst thou thirst for, and with blood I glut thee!"
- Displayed how routed fled the Assyrians
- After that Holofernes had been slain,
- And likewise the remainder of that slaughter.
- I saw there Troy in ashes and in caverns;
- O Ilion! thee, how abject and debased,
- Displayed the image that is there discerned!
- Whoe'er of pencil master was or stile,
- That could portray the shades and traits which there
- Would cause each subtile genius to admire?
- Dead seemed the dead, the living seemed alive;
- Better than I saw not who saw the truth,
- All that I trod upon while bowed I went.
- Now wax ye proud, and on with looks uplifted,
- Ye sons of Eve, and bow not down your faces
- So that ye may behold your evil ways!
- More of the mount by us was now encompassed,
- And far more spent the circuit of the sun,
- Than had the mind preoccupied imagined,
- When he, who ever watchful in advance
- Was going on, began: "Lift up thy head,
- 'Tis no more time to go thus meditating.
- Lo there an Angel who is making haste
- To come towards us; lo, returning is
- From service of the day the sixth handmaiden.
- With reverence thine acts and looks adorn,
- So that he may delight to speed us upward;
- Think that this day will never dawn again."
- I was familiar with his admonition
- Ever to lose no time; so on this theme
- He could not unto me speak covertly.
- Towards us came the being beautiful
- Vested in white, and in his countenance
- Such as appears the tremulous morning star.
- His arms he opened, and opened then his wings;
- "Come," said he, "near at hand here are the steps,
- And easy from henceforth is the ascent."
- At this announcement few are they who come!
- O human creatures, born to soar aloft,
- Why fall ye thus before a little wind?
- He led us on to where the rock was cleft;
- There smote upon my forehead with his wings,
- Then a safe passage promised unto me.
- As on the right hand, to ascend the mount
- Where seated is the church that lordeth it
- O'er the well-guided, above Rubaconte,
- The bold abruptness of the ascent is broken
- By stairways that were made there in the age
- When still were safe the ledger and the stave,
- E'en thus attempered is the bank which falls
- Sheer downward from the second circle there;
- But on this, side and that the high rock graze.
- As we were turning thitherward our persons,
- "Beati pauperes spiritu," voices
- Sang in such wise that speech could tell it not.
- Ah me! how different are these entrances
- From the Infernal! for with anthems here
- One enters, and below with wild laments.
- We now were hunting up the sacred stairs,
- And it appeared to me by far more easy
- Than on the plain it had appeared before.
- Whence I: "My Master, say, what heavy thing
- Has been uplifted from me, so that hardly
- Aught of fatigue is felt by me in walking?"
- He answered: "When the P's which have remained
- Still on thy face almost obliterate
- Shall wholly, as the first is, be erased,
- Thy feet will be so vanquished by good will,
- That not alone they shall not feel fatigue,
- But urging up will be to them delight."
- Then did I even as they do who are going
- With something on the head to them unknown,
- Unless the signs of others make them doubt,
- Wherefore the hand to ascertain is helpful,
- And seeks and finds, and doth fulfill the office
- Which cannot be accomplished by the sight;
- And with the fingers of the right hand spread
- I found but six the letters, that had carved
- Upon my temples he who bore the keys;
- Upon beholding which my Leader smiled.