Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
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Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
- The place where to descend the bank we came
- Was alpine, and from what was there, moreover,
- Of such a kind that every eye would shun it.
- Such as that ruin is which in the flank
- Smote, on this side of Trent, the Adige,
- Either by earthquake or by failing stay,
- For from the mountain's top, from which it moved,
- Unto the plain the cliff is shattered so,
- Some path 'twould give to him who was above;
- Even such was the descent of that ravine,
- And on the border of the broken chasm
- The infamy of Crete was stretched along,
- Who was conceived in the fictitious cow;
- And when he us beheld, he bit himself,
- Even as one whom anger racks within.
- My Sage towards him shouted: "Peradventure
- Thou think'st that here may be the Duke of Athens,
- Who in the world above brought death to thee?
- Get thee gone, beast, for this one cometh not
- Instructed by thy sister, but he comes
- In order to behold your punishments."
- As is that bull who breaks loose at the moment
- In which he has received the mortal blow,
- Who cannot walk, but staggers here and there,
- The Minotaur beheld I do the like;
- And he, the wary, cried: "Run to the passage;
- While he wroth, 'tis well thou shouldst descend."
- Thus down we took our way o'er that discharge
- Of stones, which oftentimes did move themselves
- Beneath my feet, from the unwonted burden.
- Thoughtful I went; and he said: "Thou art thinking
- Perhaps upon this ruin, which is guarded
- By that brute anger which just now I quenched.
- Now will I have thee know, the other time
- I here descended to the nether Hell,
- This precipice had not yet fallen down.
- But truly, if I well discern, a little
- Before His coming who the mighty spoil
- Bore off from Dis, in the supernal circle,
- Upon all sides the deep and loathsome valley
- Trembled so, that I thought the Universe
- Was thrilled with love, by which there are who think
- The world ofttimes converted into chaos;
- And at that moment this primeval crag
- Both here and elsewhere made such overthrow.
- But fix thine eyes below; for draweth near
- The river of blood, within which boiling is
- Whoe'er by violence doth injure others."
- O blind cupidity, O wrath insane,
- That spurs us onward so in our short life,
- And in the eternal then so badly steeps us!
- I saw an ample moat bent like a bow,
- As one which all the plain encompasses,
- Conformable to what my Guide had said.
- And between this and the embankment's foot
- Centaurs in file were running, armed with arrows,
- As in the world they used the chase to follow.
- Beholding us descend, each one stood still,
- And from the squadron three detached themselves,
- With bows and arrows in advance selected;
- And from afar one cried: "Unto what torment
- Come ye, who down the hillside are descending?
- Tell us from there; if not, I draw the bow."
- My Master said: "Our answer will we make
- To Chiron, near you there; in evil hour,
- That will of thine was evermore so hasty."
- Then touched he me, and said: "This one is Nessus,
- Who perished for the lovely Dejanira,
- And for himself, himself did vengeance take.
- And he in the midst, who at his breast is gazing,
- Is the great Chiron, who brought up Achilles;
- That other Pholus is, who was so wrathful.
- Thousands and thousands go about the moat
- Shooting with shafts whatever soul emerges
- Out of the blood, more than his crime allots."
- Near we approached unto those monsters fleet;
- Chiron an arrow took, and with the notch
- Backward upon his jaws he put his beard.
- After he had uncovered his great mouth,
- He said to his companions: "Are you ware
- That he behind moveth whate'er he touches?
- Thus are not wont to do the feet of dead men."
- And my good Guide, who now was at his breast,
- Where the two natures are together joined,
- Replied: "Indeed he lives, and thus alone
- Me it behoves to show him the dark valley;
- Necessity, and not delight, impels us.
- Some one withdrew from singing Halleluja,
- Who unto me committed this new office;
- No thief is he, nor I a thievish spirit.
- But by that virtue through which I am moving
- My steps along this savage thoroughfare,
- Give us some one of thine, to be with us,
- And who may show us where to pass the ford,
- And who may carry this one on his back;
- For 'tis no spirit that can walk the air."
- Upon his right breast Chiron wheeled about,
- And said to Nessus: "Turn and do thou guide them,
- And warn aside, if other band may meet you."
- We with our faithful escort onward moved
- Along the brink of the vermilion boiling,
- Wherein the boiled were uttering loud laments.
- People I saw within up to the eyebrows,
- And the great Centaur said: "Tyrants are these,
- Who dealt in bloodshed and in pillaging.
- Here they lament their pitiless mischiefs; here
- Is Alexander, and fierce Dionysius
- Who upon Sicily brought dolorous years.
- That forehead there which has the hair so black
- Is Azzolin; and the other who is blond,
- Obizzo is of Esti, who, in truth,
- Up in the world was by his stepson slain."
- Then turned I to the Poet; and he said,
- "Now he be first to thee, and second I."
- A little farther on the Centaur stopped
- Above a folk, who far down as the throat
- Seemed from that boiling stream to issue forth.
- A shade he showed us on one side alone,
- Saying: "He cleft asunder in God's bosom
- The heart that still upon the Thames is honoured."
- Then people saw I, who from out the river
- Lifted their heads and also all the chest;
- And many among these I recognised.
- Thus ever more and more grew shallower
- That blood, so that the feet alone it covered;
- And there across the moat our passage was.
- "Even as thou here upon this side beholdest
- The boiling stream, that aye diminishes,"
- The Centaur said, "I wish thee to believe
- That on this other more and more declines
- Its bed, until it reunites itself
- Where it behoveth tyranny to groan.
- Justice divine, upon this side, is goading
- That Attila, who was a scourge on earth,
- And Pyrrhus, and Sextus; and for ever milks
- The tears which with the boiling it unseals
- In Rinier da Corneto and Rinier Pazzo,
- Who made upon the highways so much war."
- Then back he turned, and passed again the ford.