Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
- O Thou insensate care of mortal men,
- How inconclusive are the syllogisms
- That make thee beat thy wings in downward flight!
- One after laws and one to aphorisms
- Was going, and one following the priesthood,
- And one to reign by force or sophistry,
- And one in theft, and one in state affairs,
- One in the pleasures of the flesh involved
- Wearied himself, one gave himself to ease;
- When I, from all these things emancipate,
- With Beatrice above there in the Heavens
- With such exceeding glory was received!
- When each one had returned unto that point
- Within the circle where it was before,
- It stood as in a candlestick a candle;
- And from within the effulgence which at first
- Had spoken unto me, I heard begin
- Smiling while it more luminous became:
- "Even as I am kindled in its ray,
- So, looking into the Eternal Light,
- The occasion of thy thoughts I apprehend.
- Thou doubtest, and wouldst have me to resift
- In language so extended and so open
- My speech, that to thy sense it may be plain,
- Where just before I said, 'where well one fattens,'
- And where I said, 'there never rose a second;'
- And here 'tis needful we distinguish well.
- The Providence, which governeth the world
- With counsel, wherein all created vision
- Is vanquished ere it reach unto the bottom,
- (So that towards her own Beloved might go
- The bride of Him who, uttering a loud cry,
- Espoused her with his consecrated blood,
- Self-confident and unto Him more faithful,)
- Two Princes did ordain in her behoof,
- Which on this side and that might be her guide.
- The one was all seraphical in ardour;
- The other by his wisdom upon earth
- A splendour was of light cherubical.
- One will I speak of, for of both is spoken
- In praising one, whichever may be taken,
- Because unto one end their labours were.
- Between Tupino and the stream that falls
- Down from the hill elect of blessed Ubald,
- A fertile slope of lofty mountain hangs,
- From which Perugia feels the cold and heat
- Through Porta Sole, and behind it weep
- Gualdo and Nocera their grievous yoke.
- From out that slope, there where it breaketh most
- Its steepness, rose upon the world a sun
- As this one does sometimes from out the Ganges;
- Therefore let him who speaketh of that place,
- Say not Ascesi, for he would say little,
- But Orient, if he properly would speak.
- He was not yet far distant from his rising
- Before he had begun to make the earth
- Some comfort from his mighty virtue feel.
- For he in youth his father's wrath incurred
- For certain Dame, to whom, as unto death,
- The gate of pleasure no one doth unlock;
- And was before his spiritual court
- 'Et coram patre' unto her united;
- Then day by day more fervently he loved her.
- She, reft of her first husband, scorned, obscure,
- One thousand and one hundred years and more,
- Waited without a suitor till he came.
- Naught it availed to hear, that with Amyclas
- Found her unmoved at sounding of his voice
- He who struck terror into all the world;
- Naught it availed being constant and undaunted,
- So that, when Mary still remained below,
- She mounted up with Christ upon the cross.
- But that too darkly I may not proceed,
- Francis and Poverty for these two lovers
- Take thou henceforward in my speech diffuse.
- Their concord and their joyous semblances,
- The love, the wonder, and the sweet regard,
- They made to be the cause of holy thoughts;
- So much so that the venerable Bernard
- First bared his feet, and after so great peace
- Ran, and, in running, thought himself too slow.
- O wealth unknown! O veritable good!
- Giles bares his feet, and bares his feet Sylvester
- Behind the bridegroom, so doth please the bride!
- Then goes his way that father and that master,
- He and his Lady and that family
- Which now was girding on the humble cord;
- Nor cowardice of heart weighed down his brow
- At being son of Peter Bernardone,
- Nor for appearing marvellously scorned;
- But regally his hard determination
- To Innocent he opened, and from him
- Received the primal seal upon his Order.
- After the people mendicant increased
- Behind this man, whose admirable life
- Better in glory of the heavens were sung,
- Incoronated with a second crown
- Was through Honorius by the Eternal Spirit
- The holy purpose of this Archimandrite.
- And when he had, through thirst of martyrdom,
- In the proud presence of the Sultan preached
- Christ and the others who came after him,
- And, finding for conversion too unripe
- The folk, and not to tarry there in vain,
- Returned to fruit of the Italic grass,
- On the rude rock 'twixt Tiber and the Arno
- From Christ did he receive the final seal,
- Which during two whole years his members bore.
- When He, who chose him unto so much good,
- Was pleased to draw him up to the reward
- That he had merited by being lowly,
- Unto his friars, as to the rightful heirs,
- His most dear Lady did he recommend,
- And bade that they should love her faithfully;
- And from her bosom the illustrious soul
- Wished to depart, returning to its realm,
- And for its body wished no other bier.
- Think now what man was he, who was a fit
- Companion over the high seas to keep
- The bark of Peter to its proper bearings.
- And this man was our Patriarch; hence whoever
- Doth follow him as he commands can see
- That he is laden with good merchandise.
- But for new pasturage his flock has grown
- So greedy, that it is impossible
- They be not scattered over fields diverse;
- And in proportion as his sheep remote
- And vagabond go farther off from him,
- More void of milk return they to the fold.
- Verily some there are that fear a hurt,
- And keep close to the shepherd; but so few,
- That little cloth doth furnish forth their hoods.
- Now if my utterance be not indistinct,
- If thine own hearing hath attentive been,
- If thou recall to mind what I have said,
- In part contented shall thy wishes be;
- For thou shalt see the plant that's chipped away,
- And the rebuke that lieth in the words,
- 'Where well one fattens, if he strayeth not.'"