Chapter 1 The Dark Forest. The Hill of Difficulty. The Panther, the Lion,
and the Wolf. Virgil.
Chapter 2 The Descent. Dante's Protest and Virgil's Appeal. Th_ntercession of the Three Ladies Benedight.
Chapter 3 The Gate of Hell. The Inefficient or Indifferent. Pope Celestin_. The Shores of Acheron. Charon. The Earthquake and the Swoon.
Chapter 4 The First Circle, Limbo: Virtuous Pagans and the Unbaptized. Th_our Poets, Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. The Noble Castle of Philosophy.
Chapter 5 The Second Circle: The Wanton. Minos. The Infernal Hurricane.
Francesca da Rimini.
Chapter 6 The Third Circle: The Gluttonous. Cerberus. The Eternal Rain.
Chapter 7 The Fourth Circle: The Avaricious and the Prodigal. Plutus.
Fortune and her Wheel. The Fifth Circle: The Irascible and the Sullen. Styx.
Chapter 8 Phlegyas. Philippo Argenti. The Gate of the City of Dis.
Chapter 9 The Furies and Medusa. The Angel. The City of Dis. The Sixt_ircle: Heresiarchs.
Chapter 10 Farinata and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Discourse on th_nowledge of the Damned.
Chapter 11 The Broken Rocks. Pope Anastasius. General Description of th_nferno and its Divisions.
Chapter 12 The Minotaur. The Seventh Circle: The Violent. The Rive_hlegethon. The Violent against their Neighbours. The Centaurs. Tyrants.
Chapter 13 The Wood of Thorns. The Harpies. The Violent against themselves.
Suicides. Pier della Vigna. Lano and Jacopo da Sant' Andrea.
Chapter 14 The Sand Waste and the Rain of Fire. The Violent against God.
Capaneus. The Statue of Time, and the Four Infernal Rivers.
Chapter 15 The Violent against Nature. Brunetto Latini.
Chapter 16 Guidoguerra, Aldobrandi, and Rusticucci. Cataract of the Rive_f Blood.
Chapter 17 Geryon. The Violent against Art. Usurers. Descent into the Abys_f Malebolge.
Chapter 18 The Eighth Circle, Malebolge: The Fraudulent and the Malicious.
The First Bolgia: Seducers and Panders. Venedico Caccianimico. Jason. Th_econd Bolgia: Flatterers. Allessio Interminelli. Thais.
Chapter 19 The Third Bolgia: Simoniacs. Pope Nicholas III. Dante's Reproo_f corrupt Prelates.
Chapter 20 The Fourth Bolgia: Soothsayers. Amphiaraus, Tiresias, Aruns,
Manto, Eryphylus, Michael Scott, Guido Bonatti, and Asdente. Virgil reproache_ante's Pity. Mantua's Foundation.
Chapter 21 The Fifth Bolgia: Peculators. The Elder of Santa Zita. Malacod_nd other Devils.
Chapter 22 Ciampolo, Friar Gomita, and Michael Zanche. The Malabranch_uarrel.
Chapter 23 Escape from the Malabranche. The Sixth Bolgia: Hypocrites.
Catalano and Loderingo. Caiaphas.
Chapter 24 The Seventh Bolgia: Thieves. Vanni Fucci. Serpents.
Chapter 25 Vanni Fucci's Punishment. Agnello Brunelleschi, Buoso degl_bati, Puccio Sciancato, Cianfa de' Donati, and Guercio Cavalcanti.
Chapter 26 The Eighth Bolgia: Evil Counsellors. Ulysses and Diomed.
Ulysses' Last Voyage.
Chapter 27 Guido da Montefeltro. His deception by Pope Boniface VIII.
Chapter 28 The Ninth Bolgia: Schismatics. Mahomet and Ali. Pier d_edicina, Curio, Mosca, and Bertrand de Born.
Chapter 29 Geri del Bello. The Tenth Bolgia: Alchemists. Griffolino d'
Arezzo and Capocchino.
Chapter 30 Other Falsifiers or Forgers. Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Adam o_rescia, Potiphar's Wife, and Sinon of Troy.
Chapter 31 The Giants, Nimrod, Ephialtes, and Antaeus. Descent to Cocytus.
Chapter 32 The Ninth Circle: Traitors. The Frozen Lake of Cocytus. Firs_ivision, Caina: Traitors to their Kindred. Camicion de' Pazzi. Secon_ivision, Antenora: Traitors to their Country. Dante questions Bocca degl_bati. Buoso da Duera.
Chapter 33 Count Ugolino and the Archbishop Ruggieri. The Death of Coun_golino's Sons. Third Division of the Ninth Circle, Ptolomaea: Traitors t_heir Friends. Friar Alberigo, Branco d' Oria.
Chapter 34 Fourth Division of the Ninth Circle, the Judecca: Traitors t_heir Lords and Benefactors. Lucifer, Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Th_hasm of Lethe. The Ascent.
Chapter 1 The Shores of Purgatory. The Four Stars. Cato of Utica. The Rush.
Chapter 2 The Celestial Pilot. Casella. The Departure.
Chapter 3 Discourse on the Limits of Reason. The Foot of the Mountain.
Those who died in Contumacy of Holy Church. Manfredi.
Chapter 4 Farther Ascent. Nature of the Mountain. The Negligent, wh_ostponed Repentance till the last Hour. Belacqua.
Chapter 5 Those who died by Violence, but repentant. Buonconte d_onfeltro. La Pia.
Chapter 6 Dante's Inquiry on Prayers for the Dead. Sordello. Italy.
Chapter 7 The Valley of Flowers. Negligent Princes.
Chapter 8 The Guardian Angels and the Serpent. Nino di Gallura. The Thre_tars. Currado Malaspina.
Chapter 9 Dante's Dream of the Eagle. The Gate of Purgatory and the Angel.
Seven P's. The Keys.
Chapter 10 The Needle's Eye. The First Circle: The Proud. The Sculptures o_he Wall.
Chapter 11 The Humble Prayer. Omberto di Santafiore. Oderisi d' Agobbio.
Chapter 12 The Sculptures on the Pavement. Ascent to the Second Circle.
Chapter 13 The Second Circle: The Envious. Sapia of Siena.
Chapter 14 Guido del Duca and Renier da Calboli. Cities of the Arno Valley.
Denunciation of Stubbornness.
Chapter 15 The Third Circle: The Irascible. Dante's Visions. The Smoke.
Chapter 16 Marco Lombardo. Lament over the State of the World.
Chapter 17 Dante's Dream of Anger. The Fourth Circle: The Slothful.
Virgil's Discourse of Love.
Chapter 18 Virgil further discourses of Love and Free Will. The Abbot o_an Zeno.
Chapter 19 Dante's Dream of the Siren. The Fifth Circle: The Avaricious an_rodigal. Pope Adrian V.
Chapter 20 Hugh Capet. Corruption of the French Crown. Prophecy of th_bduction of Pope Boniface VIII and the Sacrilege of Philip the Fair. Th_arthquake.
Chapter 21 The Poet Statius. Praise of Virgil.
Chapter 22 Statius' Denunciation of Avarice. The Sixth Circle: Th_luttonous. The Mystic Tree.
Chapter 23 Forese. Reproof of immodest Florentine Women.
Chapter 24 Buonagiunta da Lucca. Pope Martin IV, and others. Inquiry int_he State of Poetry.
Chapter 25 Discourse of Statius on Generation. The Seventh Circle: Th_anton.
Chapter 26 Sodomites. Guido Guinicelli and Arnaldo Daniello.
Chapter 27 The Wall of Fire and the Angel of God. Dante's Sleep upon th_tairway, and his Dream of Leah and Rachel. Arrival at the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 28 The River Lethe. Matilda. The Nature of the Terrestria_aradise.
Chapter 29 The Triumph of the Church.
Chapter 30 Virgil's Departure. Beatrice. Dante's Shame.
Chapter 31 Reproaches of Beatrice and Confession of Dante. The Passage o_ethe. The Seven Virtues. The Griffon.
Chapter 32 The Tree of Knowledge. Allegory of the Chariot.
Chapter 33 Lament over the State of the Church. Final Reproaches o_eatrice. The River Eunoe.
Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
Chapter 2 The First Heaven, the Moon: Spirits who, having taken Sacre_ows, were forced to violate them. The Lunar Spots.
Chapter 3 Piccarda Donati and the Empress Constance.
Chapter 4 Questionings of the Soul and of Broken Vows.
Chapter 5 Discourse of Beatrice on Vows and Compensations. Ascent to th_econd Heaven, Mercury: Spirits who for the Love of Fame achieved great Deeds.
Chapter 6 Justinian. The Roman Eagle. The Empire. Romeo.
Chapter 7 Beatrice's Discourse of the Crucifixion, the Incarnation, th_mmortality of the Soul, and the Resurrection of the Body.
Chapter 8 Ascent to the Third Heaven, Venus: Lovers. Charles Martel.
Discourse on diverse Natures.
Chapter 9 Cunizza da Romano, Folco of Marseilles, and Rahab. Neglect of th_oly Land.
Chapter 10 The Fourth Heaven, the Sun: Theologians and Fathers of th_hurch. The First Circle. St. Thomas of Aquinas.
Chapter 11 St. Thomas recounts the Life of St. Francis. Lament over th_tate of the Dominican Order.
Chapter 12 St. Buonaventura recounts the Life of St. Dominic. Lament ove_he State of the Franciscan Order. The Second Circle.
Chapter 13 Of the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Thomas reproaches Dante'_udgement.
Chapter 14 The Third Circle. Discourse on the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The Fifth Heaven, Mars: Martyrs and Crusaders who died fighting for the tru_aith. The Celestial Cross.
Chapter 15 Cacciaguida. Florence in the Olden Time.
Chapter 16 Dante's Noble Ancestry. Cacciaguida's Discourse of the Grea_lorentines.
Chapter 17 Cacciaguida's Prophecy of Dante's Banishment.
Chapter 18 The Sixth Heaven, Jupiter: Righteous Kings and Rulers. Th_elestial Eagle. Dante's Invectives against ecclesiastical Avarice.
Chapter 19 The Eagle discourses of Salvation, Faith, and Virtue.
Condemnation of the vile Kings of A.D. 1300.
Chapter 20 The Eagle praises the Righteous Kings of old. Benevolence of th_ivine Will.
Chapter 21 The Seventh Heaven, Saturn: The Contemplative. The Celestia_tairway. St. Peter Damiano. His Invectives against the Luxury of th_relates.
Chapter 22 St. Benedict. His Lamentation over the Corruption of Monks. Th_ighth Heaven, the Fixed Stars.
Chapter 23 The Triumph of Christ. The Virgin Mary. The Apostles. Gabriel.
Chapter 24 The Radiant Wheel. St. Peter examines Dante on Faith.
Chapter 25 The Laurel Crown. St. James examines Dante on Hope. Dante'_lindness.
Chapter 26 St. John examines Dante on Charity. Dante's Sight. Adam.
Chapter 27 St. Peter's reproof of bad Popes. The Ascent to the Nint_eaven, the 'Primum Mobile.'
Chapter 28 God and the Angelic Hierarchies.
Chapter 29 Beatrice's Discourse of the Creation of the Angels, and of th_all of Lucifer. Her Reproof of Foolish and Avaricious Preachers.
Chapter 30 The Tenth Heaven, or Empyrean. The River of Light. The Tw_ourts of Heaven. The White Rose of Paradise. The great Throne.
Chapter 31 The Glory of Paradise. Departure of Beatrice. St. Bernard.
Chapter 32 St. Bernard points out the Saints in the White Rose.
Chapter 33 Prayer to the Virgin. The Threefold Circle of the Trinity.
Mystery of the Divine and Human Nature.
Table of Contents
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Chapter 1 The Ascent to the First Heaven. The Sphere of Fire.
- The glory of Him who moveth everything
- Doth penetrate the universe, and shine
- In one part more and in another less.
- Within that heaven which most his light receives
- Was I, and things beheld which to repeat
- Nor knows, nor can, who from above descends;
- Because in drawing near to its desire
- Our intellect ingulphs itself so far,
- That after it the memory cannot go.
- Truly whatever of the holy realm
- I had the power to treasure in my mind
- Shall now become the subject of my song.
- O good Apollo, for this last emprise
- Make of me such a vessel of thy power
- As giving the beloved laurel asks!
- One summit of Parnassus hitherto
- Has been enough for me, but now with both
- I needs must enter the arena left.
- Enter into my bosom, thou, and breathe
- As at the time when Marsyas thou didst draw
- Out of the scabbard of those limbs of his.
- O power divine, lend'st thou thyself to me
- So that the shadow of the blessed realm
- Stamped in my brain I can make manifest,
- Thou'lt see me come unto thy darling tree,
- And crown myself thereafter with those leaves
- Of which the theme and thou shall make me worthy.
- So seldom, Father, do we gather them
- For triumph or of Caesar or of Poet,
- (The fault and shame of human inclinations,)
- That the Peneian foliage should bring forth
- Joy to the joyous Delphic deity,
- When any one it makes to thirst for it.
- A little spark is followed by great flame;
- Perchance with better voices after me
- Shall prayer be made that Cyrrha may respond!
- To mortal men by passages diverse
- Uprises the world's lamp; but by that one
- Which circles four uniteth with three crosses,
- With better course and with a better star
- Conjoined it issues, and the mundane wax
- Tempers and stamps more after its own fashion.
- Almost that passage had made morning there
- And evening here, and there was wholly white
- That hemisphere, and black the other part,
- When Beatrice towards the left-hand side
- I saw turned round, and gazing at the sun;
- Never did eagle fasten so upon it!
- And even as a second ray is wont
- To issue from the first and reascend,
- Like to a pilgrim who would fain return,
- Thus of her action, through the eyes infused
- In my imagination, mine I made,
- And sunward fixed mine eyes beyond our wont.
- There much is lawful which is here unlawful
- Unto our powers, by virtue of the place
- Made for the human species as its own.
- Not long I bore it, nor so little while
- But I beheld it sparkle round about
- Like iron that comes molten from the fire;
- And suddenly it seemed that day to day
- Was added, as if He who has the power
- Had with another sun the heaven adorned.
- With eyes upon the everlasting wheels
- Stood Beatrice all intent, and I, on her
- Fixing my vision from above removed,
- Such at her aspect inwardly became
- As Glaucus, tasting of the herb that made him
- Peer of the other gods beneath the sea.
- To represent transhumanise in words
- Impossible were; the example, then, suffice
- Him for whom Grace the experience reserves.
- If I was merely what of me thou newly
- Createdst, Love who governest the heaven,
- Thou knowest, who didst lift me with thy light!
- When now the wheel, which thou dost make eternal
- Desiring thee, made me attentive to it
- By harmony thou dost modulate and measure,
- Then seemed to me so much of heaven enkindled
- By the sun's flame, that neither rain nor river
- E'er made a lake so widely spread abroad.
- The newness of the sound and the great light
- Kindled in me a longing for their cause,
- Never before with such acuteness felt;
- Whence she, who saw me as I saw myself,
- To quiet in me my perturbed mind,
- Opened her mouth, ere I did mine to ask,
- And she began: "Thou makest thyself so dull
- With false imagining, that thou seest not
- What thou wouldst see if thou hadst shaken it off.
- Thou art not upon earth, as thou believest;
- But lightning, fleeing its appropriate site,
- Ne'er ran as thou, who thitherward returnest."
- If of my former doubt I was divested
- By these brief little words more smiled than spoken,
- I in a new one was the more ensnared;
- And said: "Already did I rest content
- From great amazement; but am now amazed
- In what way I transcend these bodies light."
- Whereupon she, after a pitying sigh,
- Her eyes directed tow'rds me with that look
- A mother casts on a delirious child;
- And she began: "All things whate'er they be
- Have order among themselves, and this is form,
- That makes the universe resemble God.
- Here do the higher creatures see the footprints
- Of the Eternal Power, which is the end
- Whereto is made the law already mentioned.
- In the order that I speak of are inclined
- All natures, by their destinies diverse,
- More or less near unto their origin;
- Hence they move onward unto ports diverse
- O'er the great sea of being; and each one
- With instinct given it which bears it on.
- This bears away the fire towards the moon;
- This is in mortal hearts the motive power
- This binds together and unites the earth.
- Nor only the created things that are
- Without intelligence this bow shoots forth,
- But those that have both intellect and love.
- The Providence that regulates all this
- Makes with its light the heaven forever quiet,
- Wherein that turns which has the greatest haste.
- And thither now, as to a site decreed,
- Bears us away the virtue of that cord
- Which aims its arrows at a joyous mark.
- True is it, that as oftentimes the form
- Accords not with the intention of the art,
- Because in answering is matter deaf,
- So likewise from this course doth deviate
- Sometimes the creature, who the power possesses,
- Though thus impelled, to swerve some other way,
- (In the same wise as one may see the fire
- Fall from a cloud,) if the first impetus
- Earthward is wrested by some false delight.
- Thou shouldst not wonder more, if well I judge,
- At thine ascent, than at a rivulet
- From some high mount descending to the lowland.
- Marvel it would be in thee, if deprived
- Of hindrance, thou wert seated down below,
- As if on earth the living fire were quiet."
- Thereat she heavenward turned again her face.