Chapter 2 HOUSING, TRAVEL AND POPULATION QUESTIONS
When every allowance has been made for the material changes which the progres_f this century threatens, it is easy to see that certain present-day problem_ill continue to trouble our successors. Some things which perplex ourselve_ill, I think, work out their own remedy. Others will remain the subject o_olutions not difficult to be imagined in advance.
One chief difficulty which will infallibly confront the immediate future, an_ven the future that is more remote, arises out of the simple fact that th_ace of man tends to increase numerically at a speed greater than our device_or its accommodation can quite conveniently cope with. The population of th_orld not only increases, but increases at compound interest. Nor is this all.
Improved sanitation, better habits of life, and the progress of medicine, prolong lives that in the conditions of last century would have bee_hortened, and the rate of increase is thus further accelerated, a_ndividuals who in different conditions would have died, live on, perhap_eproducing their species, and thus intensifying the population problem.
Against these influences may be set the effect of the restrictions imposed b_ome civilised peoples on the birth rate, which Mr Roosevelt calls "rac_uicide." These practices, just now increasingly prevalent, retard the rate o_ncrease, but do not at present stop our increase : they alleviate, but do no_ure the difficulty of over-population. Artificial physiological checks o_opulation, if I am right in certain other conjectures to be presentl_eveloped, will not form part of the permanent morality of the new age, partl_ecause, with more enlightenment, they will be voluntarily abandoned o_uperseded, and partly because the necessity for them will have disappeared, having worked out its own cure.
But with all this it would be folly to anticipate that the population of th_ivilised world will not have greatly increased before the end of the perio_ontemplated by the present inquiry : and this brings us face to face with tw_ery important questions — those of housing and transport. Where shall w_ive, and how shall we move from place to place— above all, how shall w_roceed from home to the scene of work and thence home again every day, in th_uture ? Shall we indeed thus move back and forth at all ?
The answer to the last question bifurcates somewhat. In the early future of (say) twenty or thirty years hence, probably the greatest tendencies will b_owards concentration on the one hand and exceedingly rapid transport on th_ther. What the ultimate practice will be, it should not be difficult to gues_hen we see how these tendencies are likely to work themselves out.
During the last twenty-five or thirty years of the nineteenth century th_endency of workers in great cities was more and more towards suburban life, men travelling to and from the cities in increasing numbers, to increasin_istances, and at increasing speeds. Even mechanics, even labourers and th_ther humbler wage-earners (to say nothing of clerks not earning much more, but spending their money in a different manner) nowadays travel considerabl_istances to their work. But in spite of what is complacently regarded (b_ailway and tramway directors) as rapid conveyance, there is lately manifes_n increasing impatience against the time subtracted from men's leisure by th_wo daily journeys, an impatience very naturally increased in the case o_anual workers of both sexes by the utter inadequacy of the legislativ_ontrol imposed upon railway and tramway companies.
Crowded trams and trains, with desperate men and weak women fighting a dail_attle for conveyance before all the cheap trips have been made, inflict _hameful degradation upon the class for which Parliament makes illusor_rovision in railway and tramway Acts. As a consequence of this difficulty, and also because of the early hour at which the companies are allowed to ceas_arrying working-folk at the workmen's fare, many men and women are compelle_o waste some hours of their scanty leisure every day between the arrival o_heir trains and the opening of their workshops, a cruelty for which the blam_ay be pretty equally apportioned to Parliament and the company directors. Th_esult of it is that many of the poor prefer the evil of overcrowding i_ities before the greater evil of wasted time and degrading travel. As tim_oes on, no doubt the monopolists of transportation will be compelled, a_heir own necessities increase and so bring them under the hand of th_egislature, to serve more adequately the necessities of the majority. Bu_ven so, and as long as the effective speed of conveyance is limited by th_ack of permanent-way space and the necessity for frequent stations, th_mpatience even now manifested, and manifested chiefly by the class whic_uffers least from loss of time in travel, will lead to concentration. Takin_ondon as an example, it may be said that the Victorian ao;e was the acre o_he suburbs. But few people now live in the suburbs of London who can affor_o live anywhere else. Either they move right out into the country, seeking _pot on some main line where the greater distance and less-frequent trai_ervice is made up for by speedy and uninterrupted journeys; or they come int_ondon and occupy houses or flats within easy reach of their workin_eadquarters. The suburbs are given over to those who cannot afford either o_hese expedients, or who, having been brought up there, are retained by a sor_f inertia. Ultimately, as the demand for town space becomes intensified, tw_hings will happen. First of all, the restrictions which many cities, ignorin_he freedom of New York and Chicago, impose upon the erection of excessivel_igh buildings, will go by the board. The shutting out of sunlight and fres_ir will be the subject of compensations to be presently explained, an_hirty, forty, fifty or a hundred-storey houses, and houses which perhap_urrow to some distance underground, will, by virtue of the sam_ompensations, house a vast, concentrated population impatient of dail_ravel. As the demand for homes increases, and even the high buildings canno_ope with it, the cities will push their way outwards, repopulating th_ebuilt suburbs. This kind of thing will have a tendency to correct itself.
Rents will be high in proportion to position near the centre. But a limit o_oleration will be reached, and as certain improvements will have bee_ffected in transport, there will ultimately be a reaction, and people wil_gain go right out to the country, as long as there is any country left.
Before discussing these improvements, however, it will be convenient t_xamine the conveniences, social and sanitary, of the homes of the new age.
The greatest convenience of all, no doubt, will be the modification an_artial elimination of the domestic servant. There is every reason to believ_hat the great difficulties of the servant question as at present experience_ill solve themselves, forming in part an instance of the moral changes, accompanying material invention but only partly resulting from it, which th_ew age is certain to experience. It is usual to lay the blame of th_nsatisfactory character and atrocious inefficiency of the domestic servant_f our own day on the institution of free education. They are much more due t_he absence of any education worthy of the name, and to the imperfec_ivilisation of modern houses. Thirty-five years or so are but an instant i_he life of an institution so overwhelmingly more important in it_ossibilities than any other subject of legislation as State-compelle_ducation of the people. No one appears to have recognised that character- making, which Herbert Spencer called the most important object which ca_ngage the attention of the legislator, is the only true object of education, free or otherwise. When politicians have talked of the necessity of nationa_ducation, the argument they have used was that Germans are better chemist_han we are. When they praised the usefulness of modern languages it was i_erms of commercial utility. "Modern languages, in fact" (a recent criti_emarked), "make a good bagman." It is inept to despair of free educatio_ecause free education has produced no very satisfactory results whil_onceived of as a process of shoving undesired knowledge into the children o_he poor. Looking, as everyone not hidebound by pessimism must look, for _reat enlightenment of the law-giving class when the system of party politics, already beginning to show signs of decay, has ceased to hold all legislatio_n its blighting hand, we have every reason to expect that the true uses o_ducation will be perceived and attained long before the end of the perio_ontemplated when we speak of the new age. And then, one very great factor i_he servant question will have been satisfactorily solved, even if othe_onditions have not conducted us nearly all the way to the solutio_eforehand.
For, while making every allowance for the evil effects of education, wrongl_onceived and improperly administered, on the character of women destined t_ecome servants, it must be allowed that much of what we call the servan_ifficulty could be cured now, and will unquestionably be cured before long, by inventions capable of abolishing the grievances which lead to it. Thes_rrievances are real and remediable. I do not refer to the confinement, restraint and gross lack of consideration on the part of employers which lea_oung women of the class from which servants are drawn to prefer labour i_actories and elsewhere, in conditions far less comfortable, before domesti_ervice ; but to our utter lack of ingenuity in removing the irksomeness an_egradation of much domestic labour. Some coming inventions calculated t_mprove the lot of Mary Jane will now be described.
In the first place (as Mr H. G. Wells has pointed out, without apparentl_eing aware that buildings already exist in which some of his ideas have bee_nticipated), modern rooms, equally with those of all time, seem to have bee_onstructed so as to make it as difficult as possible to keep them clean.
Square corners and rectangular junctions of wall and floor, wall and ceiling, will certainly before long be replaced everywhere by curves. But the work o_ouse cleaning will be rendered easy and unlaborious by another invention, already indeed in existence on a large scale, but eventually capable of bein_endered portable. I mean a contrivance for applying a vacuum to any desire_pot. There is a very ingenious but rather noisy engine already in use fo_umping the dust out of carpets, curtains and furniture. In the houses of th_uture handy contrivances of various shapes, all independent of any engine, will be found, furnished with elastic nozzles on the outside and with som_ort of appliance capable of instantly exhausting the air within. Such _tensil wheeled over the floor will remove instantly every particle of dus_rom the surface and below the surface of the carpet, at the same time pickin_p any such ddbris as scraps of paper, pins, and other decidua of the previou_ay. A similar instrument, differently shaped, will clean the curtains, supposing curtains to be still in use at the time, and will dust the chair_nd tables —though there will not be anything like so much dust as there i_ow, nearly all kinds of combustion being abolished. The kitchen fire will o_ourse be an electric furnace: "o' my word we'll not carry coals." Lightin_ill all be electric, and no doubt wireless. The abolition of horse traffic i_ities, and the use of the vacuum apparatus which will be continuously at wor_n all streets, keeping them dry and free from mud, will practically remov_he necessity for boot brushing, even supposing that we shall still wear boots : every man and woman in dressing will pass a vacuum instrument over his an_er clothes and oret rid of even the little dust existing—for we shall be mor_nd more intolerant of dirt in any form, having by that time fully realise_ow dangerous dirt is. The new age will be a clean age. A lady of the yea_000 who could be miraculously transported back to London at the presen_oment would probably faint (they will not have ceased fainting) at th_ntolerable disgustingness of what is, I suppose, now one of the cleanes_ities in the world, even if the cruelty of employing horses for traction, an_he frightful recklessness of allowinof them to soil the streets in whic_eople walk, did not overpower her susceptibilities in another way.
Cooking will perhaps not be done at all on any large scale at home, in flat- homes at all events ; and in any case, for reasons which will hereafter becom_pparent, cooking will be a much less disgusting process than it is to-day. I_o case will the domestic servant of a hundred years hence be called upon t_tand over a roaring fire, laid by herself, and to be cleaned up by hersel_hen done with, in order to cook the family dinner. Every measure o_eat—controllable in gradations of ten degrees or so—will be furnished i_lectrically-fitted receptacles, with or without water jackets or stea_ackets : and unquestionably all cooking will Lbe done in hermetically-close_essels.
We shall not much longer do most of our cooking- by such a wasteful an_nwholesome method as boiling, whereby the important soluble salts of nearl_ll food are callously thrown away. As, for reasons to be developed hereafter, it is quite certain that animal food will have been wholly abandoned befor_he end of this century, the ddbris of the kitchen will be much mor_anageable than at present, and the kitchen sink will cease to be, during _reat part of the day, a place of unapproachable loathsomeness. On the othe_and, its conveniences will have been greatly increased. It is difficult t_nderstand how the old-world fashion of (for instance) "washing up" plates an_ishes can have endured so long. Of course, in the new age, these utensil_ill be simply dropped one by one into an automatic receptacle; swilled clea_y water delivered with force and charged with nascent oxygen; dried b_lectric heat; and polished by electric force; being finally oxygen-bathed a_ superfluous act of sanitary cleanliness before being sent to table again.
And all that has come off the plates will drop through the scullery floor int_he destructor beneath to be oxygenated and made away with.
Here we have most of the distasteful elements of domestic service got rid of.
Naturally lifts of various kinds, driven by the same force (whatever it is) which lights andwarms the house, will be everywhere in evidence. The plan o_ttaining the upper part of a small house by climbing, on every occasion, _ort of wooden hill, covered with carpet of questionable cleanliness, will o_ourse have been abandoned : it is doubtful whether staircases will be buil_t all after the next two or three decades. And it is likely that the mor_efined sentiment of the new age will recoil before the spectacle of menia_ervice at the table. Not because they will despise, but because they wil_espect, their domestic assistants, hostesses will dislike to have thei_uests waited upon in a servile manner during meals by plush-breeched flunkey_f the male, or neat-handed Phyllises of the female, sex. Well-arranged house_ill have the kitchen on a level with the dining-room, and the dividing wal_ill be so contrived that a table, ready laid at each course, can be made t_lide through it into the presence of the seated guests. An immense amount o_unning to and fro between kitchen and dining-room, and of lifting food an_able-ware into and out of elevators, will thus be obviated, to the vas_astronomic improvement of the meal and the salvation of servants' time.
Naturally the bedrooms of the new age will have many amenities lacking to ou_wn. It is not too much to anticipate that we shall have learned enough o_lumbing to be able to connect baths, wash-basins and other necessary-fitting_ith the drains without poisoning ourselves, and the inconvenient modern "
wash-stand " with its unreticent adjuncts will decently disappear. It canno_e very long—probably it will only be a few years—before some kind o_easonable control is exercised over the technical education of plumbers.
Thus the bedroom of the new age will be a much more convenient an_atisfactory apartment than the one we slept in last night, and anothe_rksome and unelevating part of the domestic work of our servants will b_liminated. But the sleeping-apartments, and indeed all apartments in cit_omes, will contain yet another very valuable and necessary article o_urniture—the oxygenator. Nearly all the unhealthiness and the pinched, wear_reyness of town-dwellers to-day could be cured by fresh air. Everyone i_amiliar with the improvement which can be effected in the health an_ppearance of a city family by even a short visit to the seaside or th_ountry—an improvement which it happens to be fashionable just now t_ttribute, in the former case, to the presence of ozone in the sea air. Th_act that hoHday-makers are able to endure the smell of slowly-decayin_eaweed with a dash of putrescent fish about it, which is called "sea-air,"
without injury, and even to pick up health in the presence of it, is more du_o the absence of carbon dioxide and other deleterious gases of the towns tha_o anything else. The beneficent effects of country air are practically al_ue to the power possessed by green vegetation of superoxygenating th_urrounding air. The atmosphere of cities, or at all events of city homes, will presently be freed from the products of combustion and respiration, an_ndowed with a slightly-increased proportion of oxygen, by artificial means.
And especially in bedrooms, rendered to-day stuffy and unhealthy by th_diotic fear of night air which an effete tradition has handed down to us, will this reform be in evidence. Prudent people to-day insist on large bedroo_indows — preferably of the French - door pattern—and keep them wide open al_ight. But this is attended by inconveniences in cold and wet weather; an_hile our grandchildren will still keep their windows open all night in al_eathers, they will not be content with this alone. There will be a chemica_pparatus hidden away in some corner, or, built into the wall, which wil_bsorb carbon dioxide and at the same time slowly give off a certain amount o_xygen—just enough to raise the oxygenation of the air to the standard of th_est country places. And similar appliances will be at work in the streets o_ur cities, so that town air will be just as wholesome, just as tonic an_nvigorating, as country air. If the theory that the presence of ozone (tha_s, allotropic oxygen) in the sea air is beneficent stand the test of time, n_oubt ozonators will form part of these appliances : but in any case, as th_igh buildings of the new age will keep out the sunlight, electric light, carrying all the ray-activity of sunlight, and just as capable of fosterin_ife and vegetation, will serve the streets. Thus, so far as hygiene goes, town life will be on a par with country life: but many people will prefer th_ountry, and means will have to be provided to render homes in the countr_ompatible with work in the cities. This brings us to the question o_ransport.
I do not think that people will, within the next hundred years at all events, travel to and from work in flying-machines. But no doubt the system of railwa_ransport will be revolutionised. What makes suburban travel so slow is, no_o much lack of speed on the part of the trains, as the necessity for frequen_toppage. You cannot satisfactorily run a train at sixty miles an hour an_top it every minute or so: otherwise sixty miles an hour would be quite fas_nough, for some decades at least, to satisfy all requirements of suburba_raffic, though it would be, and indeed is, ridiculously inadequate for long - distance travelling. The expense of increased permanent-way hampers railwa_anagement, and as there is no possibility of getting more land to increas_he number of available tracks, some method will have to be devised fo_unning one train over the top of another—perhaps to the height of severa_toreys, not necessarily provided with supporting rails : for we may ver_onceivably have discovered means by which vehicles can be propelled above th_round in some kind of guide-ways, doing away with the great loss of powe_aused by wheel friction ; that is to say, the guides will direct, but no_upport, the carriages. The clumsy device of locomotive engines will have bee_ispensed with. Whatever power is employed to drive the trains of the nex_entury will certainly be conveyed to them from central power-houses.
But, as the reader has been already reminded, it is the stoppages which are s_asteful of time on a suburban railway : and they are also wasteful of force.
Now in all respects the new age will be economical. One thing that will hav_o be perfected is the art of getting up speed. Look, as you go home to-night, at the way your train gathers speed on leaving a station. Observe what a lono_ime it is before it can attain its full velocity. A large part of the tota_ime you require in order to reach the suburbs is consumed in this manner. _undred years hence trains will almost jump to full speed, somewhat as _otor-car jumps to-day. In collecting passengers at suburban stations, th_rain, a hundred years hence, will perhaps not stop at all. It will onl_lacken speed a little ; but the platform will begin to move as the trai_pproaches, and will run along beside it, at the same speed as the trai_tself, so that passengers can get in and out as if the train were standin_till. When all are aboard, the doors will be closed all together by th_uard, and the platform will reverse its motion, and return to its origina_osition ready for the next train.
With trains travelling at quite 200 miles an hour—and certainly nothing les_ill satisfy the remoter suburbanites of next century— frightful accident_ould occur if precautions were not taken. The moment two trains are in th_ame section of line they will be automatically cut off from the source o_ower, and their brakes will at the same time bring them to a standstill. _assenger who put his head out of the window of a train travelling at thi_peed would be blinded and suffocated ; so the windows will be glazed, th_xygenators and carbon-dioxide absorbers in each carriage keeping the ai_weet, and other suitable appliances adjusting its temperature. There will b_o such thing as level crossings; wherever the road crosses the line ther_ill be bridges, provided with an endless moving track (like the automati_taircase at the Crystal Palace), to carry passengers and vehicles across. O_ourse horses will long since have vanished from the land, except a_nstruments of the pleasure of a few cranks who affect the manners of tha_ffete period, the year 1900.
And the omnipresence of high-speed vehicles will in itself have eliminate_uch danger of accident. It is not to be supposed that the unresting march o_echanical improvement will have failed to have its effect on the people. Ma_imself will have progressed. He will be cleverer in avoiding accidents.
Cities will be provided with moving street-ways, always in action at two o_ore speeds ; and we shall have learned to hop on and off the lowest spee_rom the stationary pavement, and from the lower speeds to the higher, withou_anger. When streets cross, one rolling roadway will rise in a curve over th_ther. There will be no vehicular traffic at all in cities of any size; al_he transportation will be done by the roads' own motion. In smaller towns, and for getting from one town to another, automatic motor-cars will exist, coin-worked. A man who wishes to travel will step into a motor-car, drop int_ slot-machine the coin which represents the hire of the car for the distanc_e wants to travel, and assume control. Here again the progress of man wil_ome into play. Everyone will know how to drive a motor-car safely. If yo_oubt it, consider for a moment the position of a man of 1800 suddenl_ransported into a street of modern London. He would never be able to cros_t; the rush of omnibuses, motors and bicycles would confuse and frighten him.
Imagine the same man trying to use the underground railways of to-day, or t_et up to town from a busy suburb in the morning. He would either be kille_ut of hand or left behind altogether from sheer inability to enter the train.
We may safely suppose that the ocean ships of a hundred years hence will b_riven by energy of some kind transmitted from the shores on either side. I_s absolutely unquestionable that no marine engine in the least resemblin_hat we know to-day can meet the requirements of the new age. The expense o_riving a steamship increases in such a ratio to its size and speed that th_conomic limits of steam propulsion are foreseen. Probably the ships of a.d.
2000 will differ entirely in appearance from those we know. Just as roa_riction is the bugbear of the railway engineer, so water-resistance is th_ugbear of the marine engineer. The ships of a hundred years hence will no_ie in the water. They will tower above the surface, merely skimming it wit_heir keels, and the only engines they will carry will be those which receiv_nd utilise the energy transmitted to them from the power-house_shore—perhaps worked by the force of the very tides of the conquered ocea_tself.
The housing problem is so intimately and visibly connected in our minds wit_he growth of population that the more vital entanglement of the latter wit_he food question is hardly perceptible except to economic experts. Th_rdinary newspaper reader is not in a position to trace the intimat_ignificance of prices; indeed, he often regards it as rather a good thin_hat wheat should fetch a good price per quarter, forgetting that low price_or commodities mean increased purchasing power for money, and a bette_tandard of life for the people. When such elementary implications as this ar_verlooked, it is hardly remarkable that the more obscure connection o_opulation with prices is never thought of. Yet it is obvious that unless th_ources of supply increase more rapidly than the consuming population, price_ust rise—in other words, the purchasing power of money must diminish.
Wages, to some extent, will no doubt rise also, but as competition seriousl_ffects the markets for manufactured goods and machinery, and the increase o_opulation not only tends to raise prices of commodities, but also restrict_he rise of wages, relief will have to be found in economies of various sorts.
The standard of comfort in working families must improve considerably; partl_ecause the demand for improvement, taking the shape of industrial combinatio_nd trade-unionism developed to a high degree, will be more and more clamorous ; partly because of public feeling. What is currently called the growth o_entimentalism in modern life is really the development of modern conscience.
No doubt the abolition of judicial torture was at one time regarded as a mar_f absurd sentimentality; and the opinion has already been expressed that _ast amelioration of public morality is in store for the new ag-e. A orea_lement in the conflict between comfort on the one hand and competition on th_ther will be economy of means. That is why the new age will, among othe_hings, be an age of economy.
In the matter of food, chiefly, a great saving can be effected. Nothing i_ore painfully ludicrous—I use the incongruous collocution advisedly—than th_pectacle every winter of money being laboriously accumulated for th_rovision of free meals for the poor, and spent, to a great extent, s_astefully as on meat soups and white bread. The crass ignorance of the poor, who will not touch wholemeal bread, and indeed regard the offer of it a_omething in the nature of an insult; and who cannot be induced to believ_hat meat is one of the least satisfactory and most expensive forms o_ourishment, is of course responsible in great part for this error. If w_ould get our nitrogen from pulses, nuts, and use vegetable fats derived fro_uts, and bread made from entire wheat-kernels finely ground (instead of bein_nly half ground as in most " brown breads") [](footnotes.xml#footnote_2) our "free dinner" charities would be able to feed at least twice or thre_imes as many people for every pound collected as they do at present. But th_roposal would probably excite an outcry and we should hear that the poor wer_eing treated as animals and that we fain would fill their bellies with th_usks that the swine do eat. But all kinds of influences will tend t_liminate flesh from the dietary of the new age. "Growing sentimentalism,"
already in arms against the use of animals for highly necessary scientifi_nvestigations, will, as it develops, be revolted bv the idea of killinor fo_ood ; and the refine-ment of the future will come to regard the eating o_ead bodies as very little better than cannibalism. Moreover, the constantl_ncreasing demand of the new age upon bodily and nervous energies will cal_or nourishment suited to their supply. This, and the wastefulness of second- hand food, will banish all flesh from the bill of fare. Fish will be eate_onger than meat. But more than anything else, the need for economy wil_eform our dinner-tables, and eventually all food will have to be obtaine_irectly from the soil, if we are to have food enough to nourish our overgrow_opulation at all. We shall not be able to afford to waste the ground o_asturage. We must use it to produce cereals, nuts and fruits, which are no_nly a much more remunerative crop, but will also use up in their assimilatio_ar less nervous and peptic energy—energy which we shall need to make the mos_f. The cereal foods—products of wheat, barley, maize, and perhaps still (to _ertain extent) oats—which will form the staple of our diet, will be partiall_ooked at the granaries by dry heat; they will need very little treatment a_ome. Vegetables, cooked, not in the wasteful manner now in vogue, but b_onservative methods which will preserve their valuable saline constituents, will have to be prepared in our own kitchens; but pulse in various forms (a_ease, lentil flour, etc.) will be supplied to us almost wholly cooked. _heap, nourishing and delicious dietary will thus be made available.
Finally, the reader will not be unprepared for the opinion that alcohol, as _everage, must inevitably disappear. Not only because the price of intoxicant_s an unproductive expenditure (and we shall have to be more and more thrift_s time goes on) but because the nerves of the new age would never stand them, must all alcoholic beveraofes be regarded as destined to obsolescence: and th_egislative aspect of this question must presently be touched upon. Already _onsiderable part of the people, in no way influenced by the illogical ide_hat the abuse of a commodity by one class calls for the abstention from it o_nother, refrains from alcohol simply because its use inflicts too great _train on the system. A good many people even now find it necessary to abstai_rom tea or from coffee for precisely similar reasons; while the highly- organised nervous systems of others find in the latter a stimulant capable o_ll the advantages of alcohol (and they are many) and not without some of it_enalties. I think it quite likely that when alcohol is gone, the nerves o_he future may find it necessary to place the sale of tea and of coffee unde_estrictions similar to those at present inflicted upon the trade in alcohol: and it is quite certain that morphia, cocaine, chloral, perhaps ether, an_imilar products, will have to be very jealously safeguarded within the nex_ew years.
Differing from many writers, I do not regard this development of the nervou_ystem as a mark of degeneration. On the contrary, it is a part of the grea_nd rapid adaptation which is bound to take place in the constitution of ma_imself [](footnotes.xml#footnote_3) to the rapidly-changing conditions o_is environment, his life, and the duties he will have to fulfil. To overloo_he certainty of such adaptations is to be blind to all history, an_specially to all recent history. The men and women of the new age will diffe_rom ourselves in much the same sorX of way as we differ from our great- grandfathers. They will differ more only because the progress of the centur_hich we have lately begun will be so much more rapid and various than thos_f the century before—itself the period of enormously the greatest change_ince the world began to be civilised.